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Jonathan Drake's Dire Dragon Dilemma - Fantasy Short Story

2020.09.28 14:35 Leebeewilly Jonathan Drake's Dire Dragon Dilemma - Fantasy Short Story

This past week I decided to tackle a [PM] - Prompt Me on writingprompts to get the creative juices flowing. I asked for genre mash-ups to play in two sandboxes at once. [Promp Link]
This prompt came from the hilarious Xacktar
Prompt: I got a dragon in my pocket and he's not happy.
How could I not, right? Super adorable idea and I took a lot of inspiration from the old Roald Dahl stories. I might tackle this again and punch it up a bit in style, but this was a lot of fun.
“I got a dragon in my pocket and -”
“EWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW,” the class chimed in, though a few added their own renditions of the same sentiment as poor Jonathan Drake stood before the chalkboard.
“Who has dragon’s anymore?”
“Oh my gods, his parents must hate him!”
“Aren’t those things like… diseased?”
“I hear they steal your stuff.”
“Dragons are so 2005.”
“I hear they’re super icky! Like frogs, but waay worse.”
Even his crush, sweet, pretty, really nice Stacey Monmouth sneered and turned up her nose.
It wasn’t Jonathan’s fault that the dragon was in his pocket. As he recalled, it must have found it’s own way in there only that morning, but no one seemed all that interested in hearing about it.
“Settle down, class. Settle down.” Miss Periwinkle stood from her chair, pressed her glasses up the bridge of her nose and approached a most forlorn Jonathan Drake. “Carrying… mystical creatures into class is strictly against our rules. You are to leave you pets at home. And as an excuse for your tardiness, I-”
“He’s not my pet, Miss. He made his way in there all on his own. I swe- ”
“Annnnnd,” she drew out the word and pressed a pointed finger in Jonathan’s direction. “You’d do well to remember we do not interrupt others when speaking, Mr. Drake. You are late for class, and have earned yourself detention.”
“But miss-”
Miss Periwinkle put her finger up, nearly touching his nose, and Jonathan clamped his mouth shut. She bent over her desk, her eyes narrowed and cruel, as she wrote in a most precise cursive on a small stock card. “Take this to the principles office, Mr. Drake. And we’ll have one of your parents come and take your…” She looked down her nose towards his pocket, where the little serpentine creature fussed and turned. “Thing home.” She pressed the paper to him, keeping as much distance from Jonathan as she could. “Go on now, Mr. Drake. You needn’t dawdle further.”
Another round of chuckles cascaded about the room and every single one was at the unfortunate boys expense.
In the hall, he looked to the teacher’s note and the rather intricate way she’d written “TARDY”. The fanciest ‘t’ he had ever seen that also sparked such despair. All the while, the draconic beast huffed from his pocket, a puff of smoke and singed sweater lifting into the air before him.
He considered opening his pocket, to look inside and see the melodious creature ruining his rather spotless attendance record. But our Mr. Drake thought not as a distinct growl warned a nipping awaited in the stitching.
As he trundled along the halls, keen to avoid any pressure on his weighted knit side, he considered how this could have happened. Not when he’d put on his sweater that morning, no, he would have noticed a dragon in his pocket as he ate his eggies on toast. Nor could it have been so infiltrated any time he’d been in the house. His mother would not stand for a dragon to be popping about. They were known to be rather bothersome as pests came, and he’d have heard her shriek a frightful mess if a dragon had been spotted.
It must have been on his way to school.
He’d miss this bus, and although loath to admit it Jonathan was to blame. A comic book, the latest edition of Merlin’s Atomic Adventure’s in Space and Time, issue 143 had stolen his attention that morning. He’d only just summoned the courage to remove it from the plastic sleeve the night before. But, our young comic book enthusiast truly believed he would have made it to school on time despite his rather hurried jog.
No, of course. It was all the dragons fault.
He approached the principles office, dreaded note in hand. He pressed past the perfect pane of glass, careful not to smudge a fingerprint and waited patiently. The receptionist, a willowy specimen of woman, seemed to make a point of not meeting his eyes. Only when he slipped the small card on the obnoxiously high desk did she seem to bestow Jonathan a glance.
“Over there,” she said, waving to the chairs by the corner. In one sat Bartholomew Wulfgar. He stank of sweat, sweets, and grass and stains of all three lined every inch of his clothes. In the other, Tatia Lindworm, a girl one year his senior. Her nose was pressed into a rather aged volume of McGrath’s Quotidian Mysteries and the Science of Shapes. Jonathan hadn’t the foggiest idea what the strange tome could contain, but she seemed rather engrossed.
He took up the seat between them and turned his nose away from Bart in the hopes it might help. But that did mean his rather scaly dragony side came a little close to Tatia.
“What’s that?” she asked, holding the book between them as though it were a great wall barricade dividing a conquering horde.
“Nuthin’”. Jonathan held the pocket close to him and felt the razor sharp claws within his jumper prod his side for release.
To this, Tatia seemed even more intrigued. She closed her hefty tome and reached for his pocket unhindered by common sense. “Lemme see!”
A rather small amount of panic spurned Jonathan to his feet. “I… I’ve got a -”
“Drake. Jonathan Drake.” The receptionist droned and Jonathan narrowly escaped Tatia’s probing. He stepped forward to the open office.
Principle Abis Von Oozecrook leered from behind his desk, a frown dropping beneath wide and bushy mustache. With a gulp, Jonathan took the seat before him.
“You bringing vermin into my school, young man?”
“No, sir.”
The principle’s eyes narrowed further until Jonathan couldn’t be sure if they were even open. “I’m a very busy man, so out with it!”
“It’s not-”
“Was not. A request.”
Jonathan stood and moved to the front of the desk. Carefully, or as careful as one could, he pulled back the top of his deep jumper pocket. Sure enough, inside lay the dragon. No wings on this fellow, he seemed the land crawling sort. But his tail was twice as long as his body, his neck thick but well proportioned, and his scales rather pretty when they caught the scant bit of light that filtered through the stitching. His jaw opened to reveal quite a marvelous set of pearly white fangs.
“Disgusting vile thing,” Principle Oozecrook said. The dragon snapped at the principles finger and the man jumped back into his chair with a clamour.
“Where on earth did you get he idea to bring a thing like that in my school?”
“Sir, I swears. I didn’t-”
“No, I’ll not have it here. Go back out there while I notify your parents about this filthy behaviour. My word…” The principle picked up his phone and dialed with his fattest finger. “A dragon in my school!”
Once again, the receptionist point a spindly finger towards the chair betwix Bart and Tatia. But this time, Tatia was waiting.
“I wanna see it!” she hissed under her breath. “Whatever’s got Boozecrook bothered has got to be amazing!” The delight in her eyes was certainly a shock, and although fearful of another sharp claw jab, Jonathan dared to look again.
“I… I got a dragon in my pocket and… he’s not happy.”
He didn’t think a person’s eyes could pop out of they’re head, but he was sure Tatia was as close as someone had ever come. But instead of a sneer, turning up her nose, or running with a shriek, she leaned down in more to get a better look.
Inside Jonathan’s pocket, the dragon turned, as if trying to nest in the linen bit’s long collected there. Thin tendrils of smoke wafted from his nose, and played at making shapes.
“He’s so cute!” she whispered, checking to see if the receptionist was looking. Thankfully, she was far more interested in a very dated magazine of Famous Fantastical Fashion Fables and Fauxpas.
“Where’d you find him?” Bart asked over Jonathan’s shoulder.
“I don’t know, really. I just found him there when I got to school.”
“I read, that pygmy dragons like to nest in knitwear for both the comfort, the seclusion and the tactical situational awareness the holes provide.” Tatia looked, thankfully without touching, down at the disgruntled fire breathing menace.
“But why’s he got to be in my pocket?” Jonathan exhaled an exasperated sigh. “When my Da finds out, I’m done.”
“You said he wasn’t happy,” Tatia said. “Why do you think that?”
“Well look at him!” Jonathan peeled back a bit more of the pocket top. “He look happy to you?”
A grumbling grown emanated from his jumper with a flicker of fire and the smell of burnt wool. “Oh come on, my Nan knit this!”
Tatia scrunched her brow and pursed her lips, congealing a thought in the wrinkles of her forehead. “You could ask him?”
“What?”
“You. Could. Ask. Him. They speak, you know? Dragon Latin?”
Jonathan’s mouth gaped. “I thought that wasn’t real.”
With a roll of her eyes, and an audible huff Tatia sat back and retrieved her book. “I hear there are translators online. All you’ve got to do is ask him why’s he’s in your sweater! If you solve his problem, I’m sure he’ll leave. Despite what everyone says, dragons are very reasonable. If you can pay ‘em.”
“Pay?” Jonathan Drake pouted. “But I don’t have any money!”
“Then get used to a dragon squatting in your jumper. There are worse things.”
With a sigh, Jonathan leaned back into the chair. “Like what?”
“Pixies in your pantry?” Bart said.
“Wyverns in your waistcoat.” Tatia added.
“Gryffons in the garage,” the receptionist said with a forlorn sigh.
Jonathan opened up his pocket again, ever mindful of the nipping menace within. He did love his jumper, and his spotless attendance record, but the dragon turned about once more, puffed fire onto the lint, and nestled himself. After a moment the growls rumbled into purrs and the pygmy dragon fell asleep.
Though it was hard to tell, Jonathan thought he spied the smallest glimmer of a smile on the miniature beast.
He closed his pocket. “Well, at least he’s happy.”
submitted by Leebeewilly to leebeewilly [link] [comments]


2020.09.28 04:28 StevenStevens43 The Gaelic uprisings

The Gaelic uprisings
The real Arvirargus revealed:
To find out why "Marius" in the quote below, is almost definitely the same person as Sallustius Lucullus, you will need to first read my previous article to establish why this is.
Reading this article without first establishing the basic foundations, will deem this article useless.
So i will leave a link right here below, for the article you should first read, before coming back and reading this one.
Sallustius Lucullus
Link for article
Marius:
Now i will introduce Sallustius Lucullus/Marius.
The legendary Marius is the son of the legendary Arvirargus.
Marius
Marius was a legendary king of the Britons) during the time of the Roman occupation of Britain, as recounted in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae. He was the son of King Arvirargus and ruled following his father's death.
Arvirargus:
And in turn, the legendary Arvirargus is the son of the legendary Kimbelinus.
According to Geoffrey, Arvirargus is a son of the former king Kimbelinus. Arvirargus
Kimbelinus:
However, it turns out that Kimbelinus is not legendary in the slightest.
Archaelogists have found his coins all over southern britain, marked "rex", which means he was a client king for the Romans.
Also he is written about in Roman records.
Quite simply, he is the same person as Cunobelinus, and Kimbelinus is simply a his name in a different dialect.
Cunobeline
Cunobeline (or Cunobelin, from Latin Cunobelinus, derived from Common Brittonic \Cunobelinos* "Strong as a Dog", "Strong Dog") was a king in pre-Roman Britain from about AD 9 until about AD 40.[1] He is mentioned in passing by the classical historians Suetonius and Dio Cassius, and many coins bearing his inscription have been found. He controlled a substantial portion of south-eastern Britain, including the territories of the Catuvellauni and the Trinovantes, and is called "King of the Britons" (Britannorum rex) by Suetonius.[2] He appears to have been recognized by Roman emperor Augustus as a client king, as testified by the use of the Latin title Rex on his coins. Cunobeline appears in British legend as Cynfelyn (Welsh), Kymbelinus (medieval Latin) or Cymbeline, as in the play by William Shakespeare.
Link for photo
Coins of Cunobelinus
Sallustius Lucullius:
Now not much more is known about Sellustius Lucallius beyond him having likely been a consul, aswell as a client king before being executed in 85 AD when the Roman empire began doing away with their client kings in favour of more direct ownership of British lands.
Also if you find it unbelievable that a Gaelic speaking Celt named Marius might have a Latinised name of "Sallustius Lucullus", then i will leave a photo of the Roman emperor Caligula.
Sallustius Lucullus
Anything more about Lucullus is conjecture or inference: for example, since every other known governor of Roman Britain had been a consul prior to being appointed governor, it is reasonable to assume Lucullus also had been consul; since all of the consuls from the year 85 until past the death of Domitian are known, he must have been consul before the year 85.
Link for photo
Marble bust of Roman emperor Caligula
Amminus:
Now, if you have read my previous article, and you still have doubts about them being the same person, then know, that everything i have said, is pretty much now accepted as a contemporary theory amongst contemporary historians and scholars, as confirmed confirmed below.
But, from now on, i will use the name Marius to remain consistant with popular opinion.
Sallustius Lucullus
A second theory was proposed by Dr. Miles Russell of Bournemouth University. An inscription from Chichester, recorded by Samuel Woodford in his Inscriptionum Romano-Britannicarum Conllectio (1658) but since lost, refers to Sallustius Lucullus, giving his praenomen as Gaius and describing him as a propraetorian legate of the emperor Domitian. Another inscription from Chichester, discovered in 1923, refers to a "Lucullus, son of Amminus". Russell argues that this is the same Lucullus, and that his father was the native British prince Amminus, son of Cunobelinus, who fled to Rome c. 40.
Boudica:
Now Marius would have been at his prime just around the time of the Boudica revolt in 60 AD.
Boudica
Boudica or Boudicca (UK: /ˈbuːdɪkə, boʊˈdɪkə/, US: /buːˈdɪkə/), also known as Boadicea (/ˌboʊ(ə)dɪˈsiːə/, also US: /ˌboʊæd-/) or Boudicea, and in Welsh as Buddug (IPA: [ˈbɨðɨɡ]),[1][2] was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the conquering forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61. She died shortly after its failure and was said to have poisoned herself. She is considered a British folk hero.[3]
Link for photo_by_John_Opie.jpg)
Boudicea painting
Roman conquest:
Of course, the uprising was caused by the Roman empire trying to take ownership of the kingdoms and lands.
They were previously self governing provences that had good trade relations with Rome.
But when Boudiceas husband died, his will was ignored by the emperor, who done the same to Boudica as he was doing to other client kings and queens, and he took Boudicas kingdom from her.
According to Tacitus, he also turned her in to a slave, and she and her daughters also raped.
Boudica
Boudica's husband Prasutagus, with whom she had two children whose names are unknown, ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and to the Roman emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored, and the kingdom was annexed and his property taken. According to Tacitus, Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped.[4] Cassius Dio explains Boudica's response by saying that previous imperial donations to influential Britons were confiscated and the Roman financier and philosopher Seneca called in the loans he had forced on the reluctant Britons.[5]
Link for photo
Iceni territory
Uprising:
Boudica and her Iceni tribe led an uprising which almost removed the Roman empire from Britain, by destroying Roman Britains most important settlements.
Boudica
In AD 60 or 61, when the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning on the island of Mona (modern Anglesey) on the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni, the Trinovantes, and others in revolt.[6] They destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), earlier the capital of the Trinovantes but at that time a colonia), a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers and site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius. Upon hearing of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the 20-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels' next target. He lacked sufficient numbers to defend the settlement, and he evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led a very large army of Iceni, Trinovantes, and others against a detachment of Legio IX Hispana, defeating them, and burning Londinium and Verulamium.
Link for photo.jpg)
Boo! And her daughters
Suicide:
The end result was defeat.
She is thought to have died of an illness.
Possibly self enduced poisoning, to avoid enslavement.
Boudica
The crisis caused Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius's victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica then either killed herself to avoid capture (according to Tacitus),[8]
Gaelic:
Now, does it seem a bit unbelievable that one single warrior princess and her Iceni tribe could achieve all this?
Well what you have to remember, is the Gaelic language during this period, was spoken all over Gaul, and before the Roman conquests, Gaul was a very large area, taking in much of europe and beyond, as i revealed in my article "From Gaul to Galilee".
But Boudica was known throughout Gaul, in many different Gaulish/Gaelic dialects, suggesting she was well connected.
Name
The Gaulish version is attested in inscriptions as Boudiga in Bordeaux, Boudica in Lusitania, and Bodicca in Algeria.[13]
Link for photo
Pre-roman Gaul
Loyalty:
Now, Marius, who was likely executed in 85 AD by the Romans, was loyal to the Romans right until the death.
Marius
Marius established close ties with Rome and good diplomacy through tribute and respect of the Roman citizens in Britain. He followed the laws of his ancestors and ruled justly. When he died, he was succeeded by his son, Coilus.
Agricola:
And back to this Sallustius Lucullus/Marius for just a second.
Sallustius Lucullus is thought to have been part of Roman attempts of expansion in to Albany/Caledonia/Scotland, and he allied himself with Agricola during Agricolas conquest of Caledonia attempt, just before his execution.
Military activity
Archaeology can tell us something of Roman military activity in the years following Agricola's recall in 84. Sallustius (or his unknown predecessor, if one existed) may have attempted to consolidate Agricola's victories in Scotland by building the Glen Forts which Peter Salway dates to his rule. Forts at Ardoch and Dalswinton in southern Scotland, which Agricola had built, were extensively rebuilt in the late 80s and evidence of improvements of other military installations in the region points to a strong presence in the Scots Lowlands.
Link for photo
Agricolas northern campaign
De facto king of Albany:
And the client kingdom that Marius ruled, would appear to have been the equivalent of todays Northumbria, and Scotland.
He was likely the de-facto king of Albany, though possibly not recognised by Picts, Scots and Gaels as such.
Marius
According to Geoffrey, he ruled wisely in the time when the Picts first arrived in Britain. A fleet of ships under the leadership of Sodric came from Scythia and landed in Albany. Once there, they began to destroy the lands and Marius was forced to react. Following numerous battles, Marius killed Sodric and set up a stone there to remember that triumph. In addition, that land became known as Westmorland after him.
Link for photo
Westmorland
Picts:
And as you may have read in the above quote, it is believed by Geoffrey that Marius was attacked by Picts that arrived in Albany from Scythia.
And as has already been established in previous articles, Scythia was an area in Eurasia that was led by the aristocratic Royal Scoloti.
It is also hardly surprising that there are Gaels fleeing to Albany, as Scythia is also coming under Roman attack, during this period.
Scythians
.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Link for photo
Scythia
Tuathal Techtmar:
Now, it just so happens, in Irish legends, around this "exact same period", an Irish high king named Tuathal Techtmar was brought up in Albany/Caledonia which was his Mothers original homeland before she moved to Ireland to marry the high king of Ireland, who got overthrown, causing her to return to Albany.
However Tuathal Techtmar ended up returning to Ireland at around the age of 20 years, and fought a war to reclaim the throne of Irish high king.
He would also have been an enemy of Marius one would assume, as Marius appears to be trying to appear as the Roman client king of Albany, and Tuathal Techtmar is also of indigenous Albion kingship.
Legend
Later versions of the story suppress the involvement of the provincial nobility in the revolt, making the "subject peoples" the peasants of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn[6] adds the detail of Túathal's exile. His mother, Eithne Imgel, daughter of the king of Alba (originally meaning Britain, later Scotland), was pregnant when Fíachu was overthrown, and fled to her homeland where she gave birth to Túathal. Twenty years later Túathal and his mother returned to Ireland, joined up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall, and marched on Tara to take the kingship.
Dates:
According to Keating, the timing is absolutely perfect.
He was in Albany from 55 AD until 80 AD, and died in 100 AD.
Dates
Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Érinn broadly agrees, dating his exile to 55, his return to 80 and his death to 100.
Caithness:
Now the end result of this war with Marius was defeat.
Though Marius was kind enough to allow them to have the area of Caithness, which the Picts refused in favour of going to Ireland.
Though some almost definitely remained.
Marius
In respect for the people he defeated, he gave them a small portion of Albany called Caithness to live in. Marius refused, however, to give them women to marry so the Picts fled to Ireland and took wives there.
Link for photo
Caithness
Kingdom of Cat:
And the word Caithness, does indeed come from the Picts, that lived in the Kingdom of Cat, after the name of their tribe.
Toponymy
The Caith element of Caithness comes from the name of a Pictish tribe known as the Cat or Catt people, or Catti (see Kingdom of Cat)
Link for photo
Flag of Caithness
Gaelic dialect:
And whilst all Gaelic languages are connected, there are many variations.
Toponymy
The Gaelic name for Caithness, Gallaibh, means "among the strangers" (the Norse). The Catti are represented in the Gaelic name for eastern Sutherland, Cataibh,[2] and the old Gaelic name for Shetland, Innse Chat.
Pictish language:
And whilst the Pictish language is Gaelic, and connected to the Brythonic language, it is still of different dialect to others.
They could probably still hold somekind of conversation with eachother however.
Picts
Early medieval sources report the existence of a distinct Pictish language, which today is believed to have been an Insular Celtic language, closely related to the Brittonic spoken by the Britons) who lived to the south.
Link for photo
Aberlemno stone
Irish high king:
Now, obviously Tuathal Techtmar did not just walk in to Ireland and get the vote of the people.
He obviously had an army that followed him to Ireland and fought for his return, and he is attributed to have fought very hard for this.
Legend
Túathal fought 25 battles against Ulster, 25 against Leinster, 25 against Connacht and 35 against Munster. The whole country subdued, he convened a conference at Tara, where he established laws and annexed territory from each of the four provinces to create the central province of Míde (Meath)) around Tara as the High King's territory. He built four fortresses in Meath: Tlachtga, where the druids sacrificed on the eve of Samhain, on land taken from Munster; Uisneach, where the festival of Beltaine was celebrated, on land from Connacht; Tailtiu, where Lughnasadh was celebrated, on land from Ulster; and Tara, on land from Leinster.
Irish Gaelic:
Now, Ireland was most likely already a Gaelic speaking country.
But legends state that during the invasion of Tuathal Techtmar, the current day Irish gaelic language emerged.
In fact, the legends even express a belief that the invasion of Tuathal Techtmar was a complete foreign invasion from start to finish, by foreigners.
Therefore, i think scholar T.F.O'Rahily is mistaken when he says that Irish legends are rehashing earlier return exile stories.
Whilst there were earlier invasions, i think there is plenty evidence to suggest that the invasion being discussed here, is an entirely different invasion to one that may have happened in the 1st or 2nd century BC.
The invasionbeing spoken about, and the language spoken by the invaders, was probably the form of Gaelic spoken by the Scythian based Gaels which first invaded Albany, before moving on to Ireland..
They perhaps did not even speak the same dialect of Gaelic as other Picts in other regions that have evolved in an ever so slight different direction.
Goidels
The scholar T. F. O'Rahilly suggested that, as in many such "returned exile" stories, Túathal represented an entirely foreign invasion which established a dynasty in Ireland, whose dynastic propagandists fabricated an Irish origin for him to give him some spurious legitimacy. In fact, he proposed that Túathal's story, pushed back to the 1st or 2nd century BC, represented the invasion of the Goidels, who established themselves over the earlier populations and introduced the Q-Celtic language that would become Irish,
Puppet:
There is however a quite contemporary theory that Tuathal may have actually been a Roman puppet.
Romans in Ireland
Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78–84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[10]
Evidence of Roman occupation:
Archaeologists have in fact found evidence of Roman settlement in the areas most consistant with Tuathals war campaigns in Ireland.
Romans in Ireland
.[10] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher.
Military support:
Contemporary historians and scholars tend to actually believe that Tuathals campaign was supported by the Romans to have a friendly king that will put a stop to the Irish raids happening on mainland Britain, as well as of course for other future possibilities and obvious reasons.
Romans in Ireland
It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[5][11] The 2nd-century Roman poet Juvenal, who may have served in Britain under Agricola, wrote that "arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland",[12] and the coincidence of dates is striking.
Hibernia:
And it is quite contemporary that Agricola did indeed give support and refuge to an exiled Irish king, in the hope he would be useful for a future conquest of Ireland.
Hibernia
[9] Agricola fortified the coast facing Ireland, and Tacitus recalls that his father-in-law often claimed the island could be conquered with a single legion and auxiliaries). He had given refuge to an exiled Irish king whom he hoped he might use as the excuse for conquest.
Link for photo
Agricola
Summary:
It sounds like the uprising was a lot bigger and more co-ordinated than simply one she-wolf.
It probably included Irish raiders, and even Picts from afar afield as Scythia.
It would all have been part of the war against the Roman empire.
As for the case with the Picts.
It sounds like Agricola gave them refuge from Marius most likely.
May have even used the inhumane way that Marius was treating them as justification for executing him, thus removing yet another client king, at the same time as gaining an allied army to invade and conquer Ireland.
Though, if this was the reason, then it was all fruitless, as no conquest of Ireland would ever be followed through by the Romans.
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2020.09.25 11:33 AutoModerator Classy Friday - Rogues (September 25, 2020)

Classy Fridays are for asking questions about your class, each week focuses on a different class. No question is too small, so ask away.
This week is Rogues.

rogue

ruːʒ
noun
noun: rouge
1. a red powder or cream used as a cosmetic for colouring the cheeks or lips. "she wore patches of rouge on her cheeks"
2. short for jeweller's rouge.
verb
verb: rouge; 3rd person present: rouges; past tense: rouged; past participle: rouged; gerund or present participle: rouging
1. colour with rouge. "her brightly rouged cheeks" archaic apply rouge to one's cheeks. "she rouged regularly now"
adjective
adjective: rouge 1. (of wine) red.

Origin

late Middle English (denoting the colour red): from French, ‘red’, from Latin rubeus . The cosmetic term dates from the mid 18th century.

Rouge

ruːʒ
noun
noun: rouge; plural noun: rouges
(in Canadian football) a single point awarded when the receiving team fails to run a kick out of its own end zone.

Origin

late 19th century: of unknown origin.
You can also discuss your class in our class channels on Discord, discord.gg/classicwow
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2020.09.24 21:12 StevenStevens43 Gododdin literature

Gododdin literature
Welsh triads:
I will begin this article by first explaining why i refer to the Welsh triads, as Gododdin literature.
And the reason is, because the sub-roman welsh language actually takes root in the East coast of modern day Scotland. Approximate to todays Lothian region.
Gododdin
The Gododdin (Welsh pronunciation: [ɡɔˈdɔðɪn]) were a P-Celtic-speaking Brittonic) people of north-eastern Britannia, the area known as the Hen Ogledd or Old North (modern south-east Scotland and north-east England), in the sub-Roman period. Descendants of the Votadini, they are best known as the subject of the 6th-century Welsh poem Y Gododdin, which memorialises the Battle of Catraeth and is attributed to Aneirin.
Link for photo
Gododdin territory
Norse-Gaels:
Now the Gododdin were almost definitely Norse-Gaels, speaking a Norse form of Gaelic.
Name
The meaning of Gall-Goídil is "foreigner Gaels" or "foreign Gaels" and although it can in theory mean any Gael of foreign origin, it always was used of Gaels (i.e. Gaelic-speakers) with some kind of Norse identity. This term is subject to a large range of variations depending on chronological and geographical differences in the Gaelic language, e.g. Gall Gaidel, Gall Gaidhel, Gall Gaidheal, Gall Gaedil, Gall Gaedhil, Gall Gaedhel, Gall Goidel, Gall Ghaedheil, etc. The modern term in Irish is Gall-Ghaeil or Gall-Ghaedheil, while the Scottish Gaelic is Gall-Ghàidheil.[1]
The Norse–Gaels often called themselves Ostmen or Austmen, meaning East-men
Link for photo
Norse settlements
Odin:
The name Gododdin, almost definitely derives from the Norse god, Odin.
Odin
Odin (/ˈoʊdɪn/;[1] from Old Norse: Óðinn, IPA: [ˈoːðinː]) is a widely revered god in Germanic mythology. Norse mythology
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Odin
English language:
Now this brings me to the supposed "legendary" founder of Gwynedd, "Cunedda", who was supposed to have been a leader of the Goddodin, and the leader of the group that spread Welsh Gaelic to Wales, as well as playing a role in forming the roots for the early English language.
Kingdom
Cunedda, legendary founder of the Kingdom of Gwynedd in north Wales, is supposed to have been a Manaw Gododdin warlord who migrated southwest during the 5th century.[4]
Link for photo
Map of place-names between the Firth of Forth and the River Tees: in green, names likely containing Brittonic elements; in red and orange, names likely containing the Old English elements -ham and -ingaham respectively. Brittonic names lie mostly to the north of the Lammermuir and Moorfoot Hills and may reflect the territory of the Gododdin.[5]
Cunedda:
And despite the claim in the above quote, Cunedda is not in the slightest bit "legendary".
Cunedda
Cunedda ap Edern or Cunedda Wledig[1] (fl. 5th century) was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd.
Myth:
The only debate to be had regarding Cunedda, is regarding his descendancy.
Some scholars consider him being of Norse Gaelic descent a myth, in favour of the more preposterous and highly unlikely claim, that a norse-gaelic speaking leader of a tribe known as "god" "oddin" and spreading a language which probably pre-dated "Roman" is somehow a Roman descendant.
This claim can only be explained by early political minded Romano Brits that wished to re-establish the Roman empire by claiming every man and his dog is a Roman heir.
Background and life
[2] His genealogy is traced back to a grandfather named Padarn Beisrudd, which literally translates as Paternus of the "red tunic". One traditional interpretation identifies Padarn as a Roman (or Romano-British) official of reasonably high rank who had been placed in command of Votadini troops stationed in the Clackmannanshire region of Scotland in the 380s or earlier by the Emperor Magnus Maximus. Alternatively, he may have been a frontier chieftain who was granted Roman military rank, a practice attested elsewhere along the empire's borders at the time. In all likelihood, Padarn's command in Scotland was assumed after his death by his son, Edern (Latin: Æturnus), and then passed to Edern's son, Cunedda.
According to Old Welsh tradition contained in section 62 of the Historia Brittonum, Cunedda came from Manaw Gododdin, the modern Clackmannanshire region of Scotland:
Y Gododdin:
Some of the finest Welsh literature ever wrote, was written by the Gododdin, which would include the Welsh triads.
Cultural influence
There are a number of references to Y Gododdin in later Medieval Welsh poetry. The well-known 12th-century poem Hirlas Owain by Owain Cyfeiliog, in which Owain praises his own war-band, likens them to the heroes of the Gododdin and uses Y Gododdin as a model. A slightly later poet, Dafydd Benfras, in a eulogy addressed to Llywelyn the Great, wishes to be inspired "to sing as Aneirin sang / The day he sang the Gododdin". After this period this poetry seems to have been forgotten in Wales for centuries until Evan Evans (Ieuan Fardd) discovered the manuscript in the late 18th century. From the early 19th century onwards there are many allusions in Welsh poetry.
Link for photo
Y Gododdin
Caswallawn:
Now this brings me to the historical Cassivellaunus.
However the historical Cassivellaunus is the exact same person as the legendary and mythological Caswallawn, mentioned in the Welsh triads.
Quite simply,Cassivellanus was his Roman name, given by Julius Caesar, but Caswallawn was his Celtic name, which is what Celts knew him as.
Cassivellaunus
Cassivellaunus was a historical British tribal chief who led the defence against Julius Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He led an alliance of tribes against Roman forces, but eventually surrendered after his location was revealed to Julius Caesar by defeated Britons.
Cassivellaunus made an impact on the British consciousness. He appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouth's kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion, the Brut y Brenhinedd and the Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli Mawr. His name in Common Brittonic, \Cassiuellaunos, comes from Proto-Celtic \kassi- "passion, love, hate" (alternately, "long hair", or "bronze") + *uelna-mon- "leader, sovereign".[1]
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Caswallawn's city
Trinovantum:
Now according to Welsh triads Caswallawn awarded certain nobles with titles, including that of Trinovantum (London).
Legend
Cassivellaunus appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th century work Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), usually spelled Cassibelanus or Cassibelaunus.[6] The younger son of the former king Heli, he becomes king of Britain upon the death of his elder brother Lud, whose own sons Androgeus and Tenvantius are not yet of age. In recompense, Androgeus is made Duke of Kent and Trinovantum (London),
See article here for Trinovantum
Crocea Mors:
Now, according to Welsh tradition, Caesar during his first invasion had his sword taken off him, and was made to flee back to Gaul.
Legend
Caesar invades at the Thames Estuary. During the fighting, Cassibelanus's brother Nennius encounters Caesar and sustains a severe head wound. Caesar's sword gets stuck in Nennius's shield, and when the two are separated in the mêlée, Nennius throws away his own sword and attacks the Romans with Caesar's, killing many, including the tribune Labienus.[7] The Britons hold firm, and that night Caesar flees back to Gaul. Cassibelanus's celebrations are muted by Nennius's death from his head wound. He is buried with the sword he took from Caesar, which is named Crocea Mors (Yellow Death).
First invasion:
Now Caesars accounts of his first invasion do indeed point to a failure.
Though, Caesar did claim a certain success from the first invasion, claiming to have subjugated certain parts of the Southern shores and made alliances with Southern kings.
He mentions nothing about having his sword taken off him, however.
Success and motivation
If the invasion was intended as a full-scale campaign, invasion or occupation, it had failed, and if it is seen as a reconnaissance-in-force or a show of strength to deter further British aid to the Gauls, it had fallen short. Nonetheless, going to Britain beyond the "known world" carried such kudos for a Roman that the Senate decreed a supplicatio (thanksgiving) of twenty days when they received Caesar's report. It is also suggested that this invasion established alliances with British kings in the area which smoothed the later invasion of AD 43.[23]
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First landing
Second landing:
Typical, to Caesars claim of having made alliances with kings on the Southern shores, his second invasion attempt one year later was met with no resistance at the landing place in Kent.
Crossing and landing
Caesar landed at the place he had identified as the best landing-place the previous year. The Britons did not oppose the landing, apparently, as Caesar states, intimidated by the size of the fleet, but equally this may have been a strategic ploy to give them time to gather their forces, or may reflect their lack of concern.
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Second landing
Return to Gaul:
The triads claim during this campaign, Caesar was again quickly put to flight.
Legend
Two years later, Caesar invades again with a larger force. Cassibelanus, forewarned, had planted stakes beneath the waterline of the Thames which gut Caesar's ships, drowning thousands of men. The Romans are once again quickly put to flight.
Roman account:
Caesar got quite far in to British mainland before becoming opposed by Caswallawn, who was also at war with the Southern brits.
And though Caesar claims victory over Caswallawn, he did still decide to withdraw his troops from Britain, back to Gaul, for some unbeknown reason.
March inland first paragraph
Caesar then returned to the Stour crossing and found the Britons had massed their forces there. Cassivellaunus, a warlord from north of the Thames, had previously been at war with most of the British tribes. He had recently overthrown the king of the powerful Trinovantes
March inland fourth paragraph
Cassivellaunus sent word to his allies in Kent, Cingetorix), Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segovax, described as the "four kings of Cantium",[33] to stage a diversionary attack on the Roman beach-head to draw Caesar off, but this attack failed, and Cassivellaunus sent ambassadors to negotiate a surrender. Caesar was eager to return to Gaul for the winter due to growing unrest there, and an agreement was mediated by Commius. Cassivellaunus gave hostages, agreed an annual tribute, and undertook not to make war against Mandubracius or the Trinovantes. Caesar wrote to Cicero on 26 September, confirming the result of the campaign, with hostages but no booty taken, and that his army was about to return to Gaul.[34] He then left, leaving not a single Roman soldier in Britain to enforce his settlement. Whether the tribute was ever paid is unknown.
Charriots:
Caesar was also very complimentary of Caswallawns use of Charriots, which is something the Welsh triads did not mention.
Military
Caesar advanced to the Thames. The only fordable point was defended and fortified with sharp stakes, but the Romans managed to cross it. Cassivellaunus dismissed most of his army and resorted to guerilla tactics, relying on his knowledge of the territory and the speed of his chariots.
Link for photo
Charriot
Meinlas:
Though, in actual fact, Caswallawns charriot likely was mentioned in Triad 38.
His horse was likely Meinlas, and his charriot, slender gray.
Unfortunately, likely mistaken as meaningless poetry.
Welsh literature
Triad 38 names his horse as Meinlas ("Slender Gray") and calls him one of the Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain;[14]
Third invasion attempt:
A sensational claim is made by the Triads.
The triads claim that Caesar actually made a 3rd invasion attempt, and when Caswallawn went to fight them, he was met with an Army of Southerners fighting as Roman allies, and Caswallan was made to surrender to them, and become a vassal to Caesar.
Legend
Caesar invades a third time, landing at Richborough. As Cassibelaunus's army meets Caesar's, Androgeus attacks Cassibelaunus from the rear with five thousand men. His line broken, Cassibelanus retreats to a nearby hilltop. After two days siege, Androgeus appeals to Caesar to offer terms. Cassibelanus agrees to pay tribute of three thousand pounds of silver, and he and Caesar become friends.
Commius:
But this claim is actually supported by Caesar himself.
When Caesar conquered Gaul, turned Commius in to a vassal and sent him to Britain to help gain allies, and Commius did indeed negotiate the surrender of Caswallawn, who would have been taken by surprise by this attack from his fellow brits.
Ally to Caesar
When Julius Caesar conquered the Atrebates in Gaul in 57 BC,[1] as recounted in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico, he appointed Commius as king of the tribe. Before Caesar's first expedition to Britain in 55 BC, Commius was sent as Caesar's envoy to persuade the Britons not to resist him, as Caesar believed he would have influence on the island.[2] However he was arrested as soon as he arrived. When the Britons failed to prevent Caesar from landing, Commius was handed over as part of the negotiations.[3] Commius was able to provide a small detachment of cavalry from his tribe to help Caesar defeat further British attacks.[4] During Caesar's second expedition to Britain Commius negotiated the surrender of the British leader Cassivellaunus.[5]
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Julius Caesar
Mysterious ghost invasion:
Now, this third invasion attempt is in fact supported by a mysterious happening which baffles historians and scholars alike.
Caesar apparently chased Commius across the channel, and Commius became marooned on the british shores, like a lamb to the slaughter, but Caesar, instead of attacking, turned around and headed back to Gaul.
Obviously Caesar was simply coming to get Caswallawns surrender.
Enemy of Caesar
A 1st century AD source, Sextus Julius Frontinus's Strategemata, tells how Commius fled to Britain with a group of followers with Caesar in pursuit. When he reached the English Channel the wind was in his favour but the tide was out, leaving the ships stranded on the flats. Commius ordered the sails raised anyway. Caesar, following from a distance, assumed they were afloat and called off the pursuit.[11]
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Commius's jewelry
War with Ireland:
There is also a claim that Southern Britains during this period are also at war with Ireland.
Welsh literature
Cassivellaunus appears as Caswallawn, son of Beli Mawr, in the Welsh Triads, the Mabinogion, and the Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia Regum Britanniae known as the Brut y Brenhinedd. In the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, he appears as a usurper, who seizes the throne of Britain while the rightful king, Bran the Blessed, is at war in Ireland.
1287 BC:
And even in Irish mythology, during this period, there is indeed a five year interregnum period where for the first time since 1287 BC, Ireland has no high king, for five years.
Milesian
Triad 35:
Triad 35 claims that Caswallawn fought Caesar in gaul.
Welsh literature
Triad 35 indicates that Caswallawn left Britain with 21,000 men in pursuit of Caesar and never returned.[16]
Killed 6000 Romans in Gaul:
Also there was apparently a farther 6000 Romans killed in Gaul.
Welsh literature
.[17] A later collection of triads compiled by the 18th-century Welsh antiquarian Iolo Morganwg gives an expanded version of this tradition, including the details that Caswallawn had abducted Fflur from Caesar in Gaul, killing 6,000 Romans, and that Caesar invaded Britain in response.[18]
Gallic wars:
And in Julius Caesars history, he did indeed fight a war known as the Gallic wars, which Caesar did win, and the war resulted in 1 million deaths.
It was a "huge war".
It would have ended with Commius fleeing back to Britain, and with Caswallawns surrender.
Conquest of Gaul
He proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar at the Battle of Gergovia, but Caesar's elaborate siege-works at the Battle of Alesia finally forced his surrender.[67] Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year,[68] Gaul was effectively conquered. Plutarch claimed that during the Gallic Wars the army had fought against three million men (of whom one million died, and another million were enslaved), subjugated 300 tribes, and destroyed 800 cities.[69]
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Caswallawn's surrender
Romantic:
Therefore, Rachel Bromwich's notion that the Welsh triads are romance, are inconsistent with the unromantic realities of war, and contemporary history.
Welsh literature
Welsh scholar Rachel Bromwich suggests the fragmentary allusions to Caswallawn in the Triads relate to a narrative of the character that has been lost.[13] This may have been in the form of a romance detailing the king's adventures, but would have been largely uninfluenced by the classical accounts.
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2020.09.24 13:59 JBL_0 Mexican drug cartels could mess up the country’s most important lithium project

Mexican drug cartels could mess up the country’s most important lithium project
By Ben Heubl Engineering &Technology Magazine Published Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Mexico’s first lithium mine could be the nation’s insurance that it will profit from the global energy transition, or be evidence that it can’t handle the mining business. The firm in charge seems to be ignoring challenges that, if left unaddressed, could make Mexico miss out on a chance of a lifetime.
Over a decade ago, the country celebrated when a firm spotted 800,000 tonnes of lithium in the ground of central Mexico, but it wasn’t prepared for the lucky strike that was yet to come. In 2014, minerals company Bacanora Minerals Ltd hit the jackpot by locating reserves 10 times this size.
Found underground in the northern desert state of Sonora, Mexico, an arid region measuring 1.4 times the size of England, was just “above eight million tonnes” of the white gold – 250 years’ worth of resource – Bacanora claims. Sonora’s reserves alone can compete with entire countries (see graphic); Chile, for instance, with its nine million tonnes, is one of the top lithium exporters. In 2022, when extraction is due to begin, Sonora Lithium’s (SLL) supply will be almost as important.

The risk of a shortfall in lithium supply is rising, experts say. Covid-19 has played some part. There are now more bottlenecks in the market than before the pandemic; more so because of the larger macro-economic trends that keep lithium prices low and detract investments from the industry. Lithium is essential for electric vehicles and batteries, for instance. As one of the few lithium mines in the Americas – as opposed to lithium brine extraction in the South and the US – SLL could support electrifying transport towards net-zero locally.
Bacanora’s CEO Peter Secker spoke to E&T; he doesn’t hide his pride in the firm’s progress: “We are doing reasonably well.” He says it usually takes at least a decade to reach extraction stage but SLL is on the way to starting it in eight years, with just two more years now needed to engineer and build the mine.
Part of this unstoppable success is down to Bacanora’s joint venture partner, Ganfeng Lithium. Chinese Ganfeng is one of the world’s largest and most successful lithium producers that brings a lot of experience to the table says Andrew Miller, product director at intelligence firm Benchmark Mineral Intelligence.
SLL considers itself fortunate that Ganfeng’s expertise covers almost all entry lithium extraction and the production supply chain. In China, lithium entities control nearly half of the global lithium production, but Ganfeng seems comfortable enough to act alone. However, elsewhere it prefers to partner up, Secker says.

Bacanora is a local partner – it used to be listed in Canada as well as the UK but is now 100 per cent British. “We fit into [Ganfeng’s] expansion plan,” Secker says. Ganfeng entered a 22.5 per cent joint venture with Bacanora and committed to engineering the open pit mine.
The Mexican government were convinced to give this private joint venture a chance, and Covid-19 only had a subdued effect – Secker estimates the pandemic only delays the project timeline by about five to six months. Before the pandemic hit, Ganfeng’s management planned to wait to engineer the mine until after the Chinese New Year.
Mexico is largely a newcomer to lithium mining. This puts it in a weaker position, some say. But Benchmark Mineral Intelligence’s Miller says two SLL partners bring so much of their own longstanding expertise – especially Ganfeng – and contacts to the table that problems in the mining itself are unlikely.

Yet E&T found that concerns over the mining are the least of Bacanora’s worries. Mexico’s powerful drug cartels and nascent violence are a reasonable cause for concern; they could jeopardise the entire endeavour. For drug cartels to pivot into lithium trading is not entirely unfeasible, though other scenarios are more likely as mines are increasingly under attack by violent groups and organised crime, E&T learned. Security experts say mine owners must prepare for theft of valuable equipment, and extortion and kidnapping of workers.
Bacanora’s remote location may make it a desirable target for cartels. Its open-pit mine will be in a secluded spot around 11km away from a small town called Bacadehuachi, which has fewer than 1,380 inhabitants. There is lots of violence and trafficking near the US border and the mine is only 170km south of the border into Arizona. Alejandro Hope, a Mexican-based security expert, adds that state authorities have little in the way of resources to provide protection. Analysists at intelligence outfit BNamericas, covering Latin America, agree and say that Sonora has an uncomfortable history in mining robberies. Hope says the chances of Bacanora being subjected to extortion are not theoretical: “I dare to say it is even likely that the Sonora mine will be targeted.”

Faced with this reality, Secker says he doubts the cartels are interested in his mining product; previous mining thefts mainly focused on gold or silver. Yet cartels don’t shy away from experimentation. In April, a carefully planned attack involving a Cessna 206 aircraft was carried out on a mine in Sonora’s west where thieves stole gold and silver alloy from the Los Mulatos mine in Sahuaripa. Reports said the operation took only minutes. Last year’s doré bar theft of items worth between $6m and $8m, at the Noche Buena mine in the west of Sonora, was one of the biggest heists to be carried out in years.
Drug cartels are not short in ambition and sophistication, as Tom Wainwright, editor at the Economist and ex-Mexico correspondent, knows. He wrote a book a few years ago about Mexican drug cartels and their increased trend towards diversification into non-drug-related business areas. If cartels can figure out how to find experts to advise on drilling into gasoline pipes that stretch across to America and trade it on the black market, it’s worth considering the possibility that they would be interested in the SLL mining project.
Alongside this, there are other sectors that local cartels have broken into. Earlier in the year, news reports said Mexican drug cartels started trading avocados in Mexico’s south.
Security expert Hope explains that there are various ways for cartels to make trouble for SLL. Organised crime and irregular armed groups can charge protection money and threaten to hold up construction efforts by, for example, blocking roads. Many mining companies would openly liaise with organised crime groups; they wouldn’t even stop to target international mining companies, Hope says.
One of the most audacious examples of cartels moving away from drug trafficking is the trading of such commodities as iron ore. Around 2013 and 2014, such techniques reached a palpable peak when the military ceased control of Lazaro Cardenas, Mexico’s largest seaport. The government order was to strike after one legendary cartel earned more money from trades going through the port than from the drug business itself. La Familia and The Knights Templar cartels were diversifying into the mining business, Bosworth says. The military campaign at the port somewhat backfired, he argues. It cost a fortune and, despite making the port safer, it failed to ensure safety in the rest of the Michoacán state and created smaller, potentially more violent groups.

A similar thing may happen in Sonora. Since the takedown of Chapo Guzman, groups that were more tightly controlled by the active north Sinaloa cartel suddenly splintered away into smaller independent groups. They would now roam freely in the state and, as such, are more violent as they look for new business. These off-shoots usually don’t attack each other. Yet Sinaloa’s lack of top-down control became more dangerous as they looked for alternative ways to make money from extortion and violence, Bosworth says.
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E&T’s analysis checked Bacanora’s feasibility study from 2018 – a 261-page document – for any hints that security was part of the assessment. It wasn’t. CEO Secker says it should already have been part of the due diligence process when his company raised equity in the UK: “It [security] never had any impact on what we do,” he says, adding that his company operated in the country for the past 10 years and never had trouble with extortion or anything like it. To date, it invested $50m-60m in Mexico.
Security experts caution against taking these new developments lightly. The whole company must be considered; upper management of a mining company in Mexico may not even know it leaks money to a drug cartel, Wainwright says. He once interviewed a person familiar with the matter and learnt that extortion at the local-regional-manager level failed to alert upper management of a Mexican company in an international case. The source said the firm paid money to the local cartel for years without realising and it only came out because the regional manager left and the affair was exposed.
Secker explains that the south of the country is more violent than the north. “If you were in southern Mexico, states like Guerrero, you would probably be more concerned, but not where we are operating.” But crime is growing. In recent regional homicide data, E&T found that the north grew increasingly lawless; with Sonora’s homicide rate jumping by 38 per cent between 2019 and 2020 to 42 per 100,000 people, it is now comparable with other violent southern states. The Mexican regional average, for instance, is around 25 per 100,000. Authorities are less able to control the violence, experts say.
The US Department of State Travel Advisory thinks Mexico is at level 2 (‘exercise increased caution due to crime and kidnapping’) on the travel advisory scale. For Sonora, which is at level 3, it recommends to ‘reconsider traveling due to crime’.
Monthly statistics on crime from the Secretariado Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública suggests for Sonora that rates for extortions, car robbery with violence and homicides were all rising. Last May, its kidnapping rate jumped to 21 instances, comparable to the most violent places in the whole of Mexico.
Some hope new officials may improve the state’s security situation and turn things around. Mexico’s first secretary of security and civilian protection, Alfonso Durazo, was born and raised in Sonora and may have some compassion for the cause. Durazo wants to become governor of Sonora but, after a tragic shooting last November, the odds are stacked against him. Three women and six children, who were dual US-Mexican Mormons, were executed in an ambush while travelling through a remote area of northern Mexico. The location of the shooting (see map) was less than 100km from the Sonora lithium mine.
E&T asked Secker what precautions the company takes, and how he would deter attacks and protect workers and equipment. “The mine site is fenced, and we always travel in convoys of two or three vehicles, but you would do that in any country, not just in Mexico. We take the normal security precautions for working in a remote site but nothing specific to cartels in Mexico,” Secker says.
The chance of an attack, however, may affect the mining business of a company. In 2018, Canadian mining company Pan American Silver Corp suffered a rise in crime and violence; along roads where it transported personnel and materials to its Dolores mine in the northern city of Madera, less than 100km away from the Sonora lithium mine, the company was attacked and robbed. It went on to announce plans to roll back operations in the country.
Other challenges
There is also the risk of corruption. Many companies can sing a song of Mexico’s endemic level of corruption. It includes graft among large international conglomerates, too. Emilio Lozoya, the former head of the state oil firm Pemex, said he accepted millions of dollars of bribes from Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht to help the 2012 election campaign of former President Enrique Peña Nieto. Mexico now faces one of the biggest criminal investigation probes in history. Bacanora’s executive team may be better positioned here as it has connections that reach into the Mexican government, E&T discovered. One of the firm’s non-executive directors, Dr Andres Antonius, previously held positions within the Government of Mexico as undersecretary for energy policy, and a staff member at the Agriculture Secretariat.
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There are environmental concerns, too. Lithium mining has a lower footprint over brine extraction, which is positive (E&T produced an extensive investigation on firms in Chile). Yet, if performed incorrectly, it can have devastating effects on the local environment. Precedence dictates that this risk is feasible. For instance, according to 2018 reports, at a lithium mine in Tibet harmful toxins leaked into the environment and polluted a local river, killing animals and affecting locals.
Critics indicated that the River Bavispe runs through Sonora’s mining concession territory (see map). The feasibility study does mention the river basin, yet the mining site can still access groundwater. The report says that up to 10.7Mm3 is available annually from the Bacadéhuachi Aquifer. One concern is what happens to local water resources if the region hits a major drought? E&T found that Bacanora’s mining concessions are closely located to local towns including Granados and Nácori Chico.
https://preview.redd.it/yd14p9iu43p51.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1b3ffe4a44fc97a509da01d8870b32eb3a3d9b7e
Secker is confident his company won’t mess up. It received all the necessary certificates, he says. The Sonora mine will be a zero-discharge operation and won’t leak a drop of water. It’s being recycled back into the ground.
Yet the stakes remain high and failure could mean more than just financial loss. Lithium experts say the world’s supply is on the verge of failure. Bacanora’s project could diffuse some pressure, but not for the US. For the next couple of years at least, the US will not receive a single ounce of the precious lithium from the Mexican mine. The deal has already been signed: Ganfeng in China will take half of the mined volume while the other half goes to Japan, where a leading trading company called Hanwa will process it.
It raises concerns that foreign companies could exploit Mexico’s resources and leave it in a poorer state. It happened with international conglomerates in Africa, though not for lithium but other minerals. A 2017 report by Global Justice Now found that much more wealth is leaving the world’s most impoverished continent than entering it.
Another hurdle to overcome is distance. Having to ship lithium halfway around the world isn’t ideal, experts say, and lithium firms are increasingly coming under environmental pressure. Consumers and other parts of the supply chain demand lithium miners to optimise operations and reduce the carbon impact of their transport. Shipping lithium carbonate more than 12,000km from the port of Guaymas to China, or the 11,000km to Japan, could add substantially to carbon emissions. Annually, the Bacanora plans to ship 35,000 tonnes of lithium carbonate by 2026/2027, when it reaches stage two of its agreement. This may cause between 7,300 and 13,400 tonnes in CO2 emissions per annum, according to E&T calculations. Benchmark Mineral Intelligence’s Miller says “it doesn’t necessarily make economic or technical sense to be shipping refined lithium chemicals in from China into the US or EU markets when you could locate some of that production closer to the end market”.
For the US to miss out on the deal has other effects. The country is under pressure to get lithium for its nascent EV and battery sector from somewhere else; it is developing its own lithium sources, but will always be dependent on other countries and – historically – has only accounted for 5 per cent of global lithium production, mainly from brine.
Bacanora’s agreement to exclude Mexico’s neighbouring country may still make waves down the road. America leadership has time to contemplate a better trade relationship with Mexico, and has good reason to do so, with some saying that America’s lithium demand may double or even triple by 2030. Meanwhile, Bacanora prudently avoids being caught in the middle of the US-Mexican trade war that President Donald Trump waged fiercely. A Joe Biden presidency seems more open for cooperating with Mexico. In the long-term it could lead “from Mexico being a security threat, which is how the Trump administration views it, to Mexico being a partner”, Miller says.
Mexico’s future seems bright and state officials have high hopes. Francisco Quiroga, undersecretary for mining, named investors from at least five countries who have expressed interest in Mexico’s lithium industry. Quiroga admits there are still several operational, commercial and financial challenges, while others, including Mexico’s Secretary for Environment Victor Toledo, see a problem in private companies running the show. Toledo reckons the lithium mine should be controlled by the government, but the President ruled against it. With government control, the mines could have sparked a domestic EV industry. The government thinks it doesn’t have the required resources.
https://preview.redd.it/22zkfztw43p51.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8ee9fe0035e5fc634197e058af90bffcea42be08
Toledo received harsh criticism from Mexico’s largest union, which said nationalisation isn’t viable and will scare off foreign investors. One central question remains: if the government nationalised Sonora reserves and mined it itself, would it invest more to keep security high and workers safe? After all, it knows its violent groups better than foreign companies. Without guidance, Mexico’s private lithium extractors may have to learn from other countries – Bolivia, for example, with the largest lithium resources of 21 million tonnes, also struggles with safety and extortion.
Bacanora’s CEO Secker is convinced there won’t be any problems: “We had never anyone shot on our site and we don’t intend to.” But better safe than sorry. After the McEwen Mining refinery was robbed by a Mexican cartel in the Sinaloa state in 2015, Rob McEwen, CEO of the Canadian mining company, regretted how lightly he took the threat of the cartel business.
submitted by JBL_0 to NarcoFootage [link] [comments]


2020.09.22 17:42 fuckmylyfe365 i cant forgive my mom for the physical and emotional abuse and i hate myself for it

here's the post talking about my mom for bg: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/hy9zj2/my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically_abusive_and/
post saying what ended up happening: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/i7ljhc/update_to_my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically/
as it comes to no surprise, my mom got away with it. we got put in family counseling, along with mother-daughter counseling, but there's only been surface changes. and im sick and tired of it. im tired of her expecting me to forgive her and holding it against me when i don't. im tired of waking up every day and being in the same house as her, and her constant questions about my day, trying to know every single thing about me and my life. she went and told two of her friends what happened and they felt BAD for her. they HUGGED her and told her that they understand. they said that it could happen to anyone. thats sick to me. no one deserves your sympathy and your forgiveness, especially when its not yours to give. ive always been one of those people who truly believes that there is good in every single person, or at least good intentions. i could never bring myself to hate anyone, but that changed. i can safely say that the one person i hate is my mom, and i hate myself for it. i can't live with the hate, or myself.
however, i cant bring myself to forgive her. there is no valid "her point of view", or anything anyone could say to guilt trip me into seeing her side. my mom has been this way for forty-three fucking years, and is one of the most stubborn, manipulative, and selfish people i know. she has no regard for people who aren't like her- straight, cis, wealthy, republican, "white" (she's actually Brazilian, but she looks white, she doesn't acknowledge her heritage bc she was adopted at birth by a white family) etc. i am almost the exact opposite of her- bisexual, raging leftist, half-white (i look more Brazilian than her bc i look JUST LIKE her biological mom), and she has no tolerance for any of that. she only likes my bf bc shes best friends with his mom, but hasn't liked any of the other non-white ive dated (my bf is half-jamaican, half white). my mom will never change, and i am confident in that statement. i cannot forgive someone who's apology isn't sincere, and wont change the behavior that led to her own child having to grow up at so young and finding a family somewhere else (which ill mention later).
im feeling more hopeless and scared than i have in a long, long time. any little thing will set me off in an insane downward spiral telling myself that the little thing is the reason why no one likes me, why (if everyone knew how i really felt) i wouldnt have any friends, why everyone will eventually leave me. ive lost all motivation to do schoolwork, and stopped caring about the things i used to obsess over. i've also given up on eating bc its my only outlet of control, and at ever breakdown i have (which could be over something as little as my bf not replying for 10 mins to a risky text i sent), ill spiral to the point of digging a kitchen knife into my left wrist over and over. and once he responds, normally saying that he was taking a shower or something life that, it'll be like nothing ever happened. yes, i know i need to tell my therapist. but then she'll tell my mom, and it'll only get worse. what are you supposed to do when the person youre supposed to go to is the person who CAUSED the problem? and i know i blame my mom entirely for this, bc I've never seen a healthy example of an emotional outlet- only throwing ceramic bowls, bullying her own children, and screaming.
my boyfriend, "m", has been the one constant in my life, ever since may. he makes everything just a little bit better, but its scary since he always seems to either make or break my day. for example, if he does something nice or thoughtful or "boyfriend"-ey, like calling my pretty, im on cloud nine. but in an instant, he could do something dumb, as most teenage boys do, like casually mentioning that emailing me (bc my mom took my phone- my bitch ass latin teacher wont put in my grades) reminded him of when he was dating his ex gf. that puts me in the self-hate spiral until he does something cute again. i hate that i have such little self control that someone else's actions are the standard for my emotions, and i hate that he doesn't know half of the things do just bc i hate myself so much.
he doesn't know that i don't eat bc i need some outlet for control, and doesn't know that i cut myself just bc i cant stand the idea of having one more thing taken away from me. i have lost so much this year, and not just from covid- i lost friends, a boyfriend (earlier in the year), the things i loved, control, a school i loved (from covid, and were in person now, but it really hurt), and my relationships with everyone in my family. i feel terrible that im putting standards and a trust in him for something he doesn't even know about (HE DOES KNOW ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED WITH MY MOM AND HATES HER NOW, he just doesn't know about my coping mechanisms), and i feel its unfair to him. i feel like im just a burden on him, and he shouldn't have to deal with me anymore, but when he's the only person that can make me as happy as i am with him, im just too fucking selfish to let him go.
i blame all of this on my mom- she took everything from me. this all started with the bowl, and now ive been on this slippery slope since. I had to be the one to grow up and report her, since she wouldn't get therapy/leave/turn herself in. I had to turn and call my friend since he always knows what to do, and now gave all that information to him. I had to grow up and deal with that self-hate and worthlessness that she threw on me until i believed it myself. and i cant deal with it anymore.
so i guess i need advice for my relationship with "m", my mental health, and what happened with my mom. thanks for reading, and it really does mean a lot.
submitted by fuckmylyfe365 to mentalhealth [link] [comments]


2020.09.22 05:51 fuckmylyfe365 i hate myself for not forgiving my mom for all of the abuse

here's the post talking about my mom for bg: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/hy9zj2/my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically_abusive_and/
post saying what ended up happening: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/i7ljhc/update_to_my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically/
as it comes to no surprise, my mom got away with it. we got put in family counseling, along with mother-daughter counseling, but there's only been surface changes. and im sick and tired of it. im tired of her expecting me to forgive her and holding it against me when i don't. im tired of waking up every day and being in the same house as her, and her constant questions about my day, trying to know every single thing about me and my life. she went and told two of her friends what happened and they felt BAD for her. they HUGGED her and told her that they understand. they said that it could happen to anyone. thats sick to me. no one deserves your sympathy and your forgiveness, especially when its not yours to give. ive always been one of those people who truly believes that there is good in every single person, or at least good intentions. i could never bring myself to hate anyone, but that changed. i can safely say that the one person i hate is my mom, and i hate myself for it. i can't live with the hate, or myself.
however, i cant bring myself to forgive her. there is no valid "her point of view", or anything anyone could say to guilt trip me into seeing her side. my mom has been this way for forty-three fucking years, and is one of the most stubborn, manipulative, and selfish people i know. she has no regard for people who aren't like her- straight, cis, wealthy, republican, "white" (she's actually Brazilian, but she looks white, she doesn't acknowledge her heritage bc she was adopted at birth by a white family) etc. i am almost the exact opposite of her- bisexual, raging leftist, half-white (i look more Brazilian than her bc i look JUST LIKE her biological mom), and she has no tolerance for any of that. she only likes my bf bc shes best friends with his mom, but hasn't liked any of the other non-white ive dated (my bf is half-jamaican, half white). my mom will never change, and i am confident in that statement. i cannot forgive someone who's apology isn't sincere, and wont change the behavior that led to her own child having to grow up at so young and finding a family somewhere else (which ill mention later).
im feeling more hopeless and scared than i have in a long, long time. any little thing will set me off in an insane downward spiral telling myself that the little thing is the reason why no one likes me, why (if everyone knew how i really felt) i wouldnt have any friends, why everyone will eventually leave me. ive lost all motivation to do schoolwork, and stopped caring about the things i used to obsess over. i've also given up on eating bc its my only outlet of control, and at ever breakdown i have (which could be over something as little as my bf not replying for 10 mins to a risky text i sent), ill spiral to the point of digging a kitchen knife into my left wrist over and over. and once he responds, normally saying that he was taking a shower or something life that, it'll be like nothing ever happened. yes, i know i need to tell my therapist. but then she'll tell my mom, and it'll only get worse. what are you supposed to do when the person youre supposed to go to is the person who CAUSED the problem? and i know i blame my mom entirely for this, bc I've never seen a healthy example of an emotional outlet- only throwing ceramic bowls, bullying her own children, and screaming.
my boyfriend, "m", has been the one constant in my life, ever since may. he makes everything just a little bit better, but its scary since he always seems to either make or break my day. for example, if he does something nice or thoughtful or "boyfriend"-ey, like calling my pretty, im on cloud nine. but in an instant, he could do something dumb, as most teenage boys do, like casually mentioning that emailing me (bc my mom took my phone- my bitch ass latin teacher wont put in my grades) reminded him of when he was dating his ex gf. that puts me in the self-hate spiral until he does something cute again. i hate that i have such little self control that someone else's actions are the standard for my emotions, and i hate that he doesn't know half of the things do just bc i hate myself so much.
he doesn't know that i don't eat bc i need some outlet for control, and doesn't know that i cut myself just bc i cant stand the idea of having one more thing taken away from me. i have lost so much this year, and not just from covid- i lost friends, a boyfriend (earlier in the year), the things i loved, control, a school i loved (from covid, and were in person now, but it really hurt), and my relationships with everyone in my family. i feel terrible that im putting standards and a trust in him for something he doesn't even know about (HE DOES KNOW ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED WITH MY MOM AND HATES HER NOW, he just doesn't know about my coping mechanisms), and i feel its unfair to him. i feel like im just a burden on him, and he shouldn't have to deal with me anymore, but when he's the only person that can make me as happy as i am with him, im just too fucking selfish to let him go.
i blame all of this on my mom- she took everything from me. this all started with the bowl, and now ive been on this slippery slope since. I had to be the one to grow up and report her, since she wouldn't get therapy/leave/turn herself in. I had to turn and call my friend since he always knows what to do, and now gave all that information to him. I had to grow up and deal with that self-hate and worthlessness that she threw on me until i believed it myself. and i cant deal with it anymore.
so i guess i need advice for my relationship with "m", my mental health, and what happened with my mom. thanks for reading, and it really does mean a lot.
submitted by fuckmylyfe365 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]


2020.09.22 05:50 fuckmylyfe365 i can't forgive my mom for the abuse, and i hate myself for it

here's the post talking about my mom for bg: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/hy9zj2/my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically_abusive_and/
post saying what ended up happening: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/i7ljhc/update_to_my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically/
as it comes to no surprise, my mom got away with it. we got put in family counseling, along with mother-daughter counseling, but there's only been surface changes. and im sick and tired of it. im tired of her expecting me to forgive her and holding it against me when i don't. im tired of waking up every day and being in the same house as her, and her constant questions about my day, trying to know every single thing about me and my life. she went and told two of her friends what happened and they felt BAD for her. they HUGGED her and told her that they understand. they said that it could happen to anyone. thats sick to me. no one deserves your sympathy and your forgiveness, especially when its not yours to give. ive always been one of those people who truly believes that there is good in every single person, or at least good intentions. i could never bring myself to hate anyone, but that changed. i can safely say that the one person i hate is my mom, and i hate myself for it. i can't live with the hate, or myself.
however, i cant bring myself to forgive her. there is no valid "her point of view", or anything anyone could say to guilt trip me into seeing her side. my mom has been this way for forty-three fucking years, and is one of the most stubborn, manipulative, and selfish people i know. she has no regard for people who aren't like her- straight, cis, wealthy, republican, "white" (she's actually Brazilian, but she looks white, she doesn't acknowledge her heritage bc she was adopted at birth by a white family) etc. i am almost the exact opposite of her- bisexual, raging leftist, half-white (i look more Brazilian than her bc i look JUST LIKE her biological mom), and she has no tolerance for any of that. she only likes my bf bc shes best friends with his mom, but hasn't liked any of the other non-white ive dated (my bf is half-jamaican, half white). my mom will never change, and i am confident in that statement. i cannot forgive someone who's apology isn't sincere, and wont change the behavior that led to her own child having to grow up at so young and finding a family somewhere else (which ill mention later).
im feeling more hopeless and scared than i have in a long, long time. any little thing will set me off in an insane downward spiral telling myself that the little thing is the reason why no one likes me, why (if everyone knew how i really felt) i wouldnt have any friends, why everyone will eventually leave me. ive lost all motivation to do schoolwork, and stopped caring about the things i used to obsess over. i've also given up on eating bc its my only outlet of control, and at ever breakdown i have (which could be over something as little as my bf not replying for 10 mins to a risky text i sent), ill spiral to the point of digging a kitchen knife into my left wrist over and over. and once he responds, normally saying that he was taking a shower or something life that, it'll be like nothing ever happened. yes, i know i need to tell my therapist. but then she'll tell my mom, and it'll only get worse. what are you supposed to do when the person youre supposed to go to is the person who CAUSED the problem? and i know i blame my mom entirely for this, bc I've never seen a healthy example of an emotional outlet- only throwing ceramic bowls, bullying her own children, and screaming.
my boyfriend, "m", has been the one constant in my life, ever since may. he makes everything just a little bit better, but its scary since he always seems to either make or break my day. for example, if he does something nice or thoughtful or "boyfriend"-ey, like calling my pretty, im on cloud nine. but in an instant, he could do something dumb, as most teenage boys do, like casually mentioning that emailing me (bc my mom took my phone- my bitch ass latin teacher wont put in my grades) reminded him of when he was dating his ex gf. that puts me in the self-hate spiral until he does something cute again. i hate that i have such little self control that someone else's actions are the standard for my emotions, and i hate that he doesn't know half of the things do just bc i hate myself so much.
he doesn't know that i don't eat bc i need some outlet for control, and doesn't know that i cut myself just bc i cant stand the idea of having one more thing taken away from me. i have lost so much this year, and not just from covid- i lost friends, a boyfriend (earlier in the year), the things i loved, control, a school i loved (from covid, and were in person now, but it really hurt), and my relationships with everyone in my family. i feel terrible that im putting standards and a trust in him for something he doesn't even know about (HE DOES KNOW ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED WITH MY MOM AND HATES HER NOW, he just doesn't know about my coping mechanisms), and i feel its unfair to him. i feel like im just a burden on him, and he shouldn't have to deal with me anymore, but when he's the only person that can make me as happy as i am with him, im just too fucking selfish to let him go.
i blame all of this on my mom- she took everything from me. this all started with the bowl, and now ive been on this slippery slope since. I had to be the one to grow up and report her, since she wouldn't get therapy/leave/turn herself in. I had to turn and call my friend since he always knows what to do, and now gave all that information to him. I had to grow up and deal with that self-hate and worthlessness that she threw on me until i believed it myself. and i cant deal with it anymore.
so i guess i need advice for my relationship with "m", my mental health, and what happened with my mom. thanks for reading, and it really does mean a lot.
submitted by fuckmylyfe365 to JUSTNOFAMILY [link] [comments]


2020.09.22 05:48 fuckmylyfe365 after a physically abusive incident with my mom, my mental health is the worst its ever been

here's the post talking about my mom for bg: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/hy9zj2/my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically_abusive_and/
post saying what ended up happening: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/i7ljhc/update_to_my_mom_is_emotionally_and_physically/
as it comes to no surprise, my mom got away with it. we got put in family counseling, along with mother-daughter counseling, but there's only been surface changes. and im sick and tired of it. im tired of her expecting me to forgive her and holding it against me when i don't. im tired of waking up every day and being in the same house as her, and her constant questions about my day, trying to know every single thing about me and my life. she went and told two of her friends what happened and they felt BAD for her. they HUGGED her and told her that they understand. they said that it could happen to anyone. thats sick to me. no one deserves your sympathy and your forgiveness, especially when its not yours to give. ive always been one of those people who truly believes that there is good in every single person, or at least good intentions. i could never bring myself to hate anyone, but that changed. i can safely say that the one person i hate is my mom, and i hate myself for it. i can't live with the hate, or myself.
however, i cant bring myself to forgive her. there is no valid "her point of view", or anything anyone could say to guilt trip me into seeing her side. my mom has been this way for forty-three fucking years, and is one of the most stubborn, manipulative, and selfish people i know. she has no regard for people who aren't like her- straight, cis, wealthy, republican, "white" (she's actually Brazilian, but she looks white, she doesn't acknowledge her heritage bc she was adopted at birth by a white family) etc. i am almost the exact opposite of her- bisexual, raging leftist, half-white (i look more Brazilian than her bc i look JUST LIKE her biological mom), and she has no tolerance for any of that. she only likes my bf bc shes best friends with his mom, but hasn't liked any of the other non-white ive dated (my bf is half-jamaican, half white). my mom will never change, and i am confident in that statement. i cannot forgive someone who's apology isn't sincere, and wont change the behavior that led to her own child having to grow up at so young and finding a family somewhere else (which ill mention later).
im feeling more hopeless and scared than i have in a long, long time. any little thing will set me off in an insane downward spiral telling myself that the little thing is the reason why no one likes me, why (if everyone knew how i really felt) i wouldnt have any friends, why everyone will eventually leave me. ive lost all motivation to do schoolwork, and stopped caring about the things i used to obsess over. i've also given up on eating bc its my only outlet of control, and at ever breakdown i have (which could be over something as little as my bf not replying for 10 mins to a risky text i sent), ill spiral to the point of digging a kitchen knife into my left wrist over and over. and once he responds, normally saying that he was taking a shower or something life that, it'll be like nothing ever happened. yes, i know i need to tell my therapist. but then she'll tell my mom, and it'll only get worse. what are you supposed to do when the person youre supposed to go to is the person who CAUSED the problem? and i know i blame my mom entirely for this, bc I've never seen a healthy example of an emotional outlet- only throwing ceramic bowls, bullying her own children, and screaming.
my boyfriend, "m", has been the one constant in my life, ever since may. he makes everything just a little bit better, but its scary since he always seems to either make or break my day. for example, if he does something nice or thoughtful or "boyfriend"-ey, like calling my pretty, im on cloud nine. but in an instant, he could do something dumb, as most teenage boys do, like casually mentioning that emailing me (bc my mom took my phone- my bitch ass latin teacher wont put in my grades) reminded him of when he was dating his ex gf. that puts me in the self-hate spiral until he does something cute again. i hate that i have such little self control that someone else's actions are the standard for my emotions, and i hate that he doesn't know half of the things do just bc i hate myself so much.
he doesn't know that i don't eat bc i need some outlet for control, and doesn't know that i cut myself just bc i cant stand the idea of having one more thing taken away from me. i have lost so much this year, and not just from covid- i lost friends, a boyfriend (earlier in the year), the things i loved, control, a school i loved (from covid, and were in person now, but it really hurt), and my relationships with everyone in my family. i feel terrible that im putting standards and a trust in him for something he doesn't even know about (HE DOES KNOW ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED WITH MY MOM AND HATES HER NOW, he just doesn't know about my coping mechanisms), and i feel its unfair to him. i feel like im just a burden on him, and he shouldn't have to deal with me anymore, but when he's the only person that can make me as happy as i am with him, im just too fucking selfish to let him go.
i blame all of this on my mom- she took everything from me. this all started with the bowl, and now ive been on this slippery slope since. I had to be the one to grow up and report her, since she wouldn't get therapy/leave/turn herself in. I had to turn and call my friend since he always knows what to do, and now gave all that information to him. I had to grow up and deal with that self-hate and worthlessness that she threw on me until i believed it myself. and i cant deal with it anymore.
so i guess i need advice for my relationship with "m", my mental health, and what happened with my mom. thanks for reading, and it really does mean a lot.
submitted by fuckmylyfe365 to Advice [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 00:52 500scnds [Table] I made a free alternative to Photoshop, that is used by 7 million people. Ask me Anything!

Source Guestbook
Questions Answers
I understand that people are always hesitant to answer this very specifically, but I'm always curious - given 7 million visitors, what your ballpark profit? And what's the ratio of the profit-to-expenses, which I assume is mostly server hosting costs as a one man operation? Most of my profit comes from ads. I make around 5 cents for every hour someone spends in Photopea (on average). In 2019, people spent 5 million hours working in Photopea, so I made around $250,000. I hope it could be 2x to 4x more this year :)
Photopea runs completely in your computer (after Photopea.com loads, you can disconnect from the internet and use it offline). I use only a file hosting, for which I pay around 50 USD a year.
the below is a reply to the above
How is that possible to only pay 50 USD/year when you get ~7 million people in a month and your site is 1.8mb. That's around 12tb/month. I don't know of any host willing to do 12tb of data for $50/12 I don't understand it either :/ I will ask my hosting provider.
the below is a reply to the above
Don’t! :) I already did :)
the below is another reply to the original answer
I'm glad you have a subscription option. As a policy I don't turn my adblocker off, but I'll totally subscribe as your rates are quite reasonable! If you're around and don't mind answering, how many subscriptions do you have? There are hundreds of people paying for Premium :) so about 0.01% of all users :)
the below is another reply to the original answer
How much do you think you're losing out because of adblockers? It is hard to tell, maybe between 10 to 40 percent :/
the below is a reply to the above
You should implement a donation feature as well, to offer more ways for users to support you. People can already order a Premium. I think it is better to get something in return (removing ads), so anybody who wants to support us can do it :)
First of all, thank you for making a great alternative. My question is, how would you compare Photopea to The Gimp in terms of features and interface? The interface of Photopea is closer to Photoshop than GIMP (so it is more comfortable to Photoshop users). I think all you can do in GIMP you can do in Photopea, but with a different workflow. You can open GIMP files (XCF) in Photopea.
There are many advanced features in Photopea, that are not in GIMP. The most important is probably the full support of a PSD format.
the below is a reply to the above
Have to confess I'd never heard about this software until reading your post, but your mention of the PSD feature makes me want to check it out immediately. I admire your determination, dedication, and skills. Thank you :)
the below is a reply to the above
Does it support vectors better than Photoshop? I don't like how limited it is in Photoshop. Even illustrator is annoying Photopea can open SVG and PDF images better than Photoshop. Just try it!
the below is a reply to the grandparent
Thank you for your program. I use it to make memes and do photoshopped things! You are welcome! I am happy that Photopea is useful to you :)
How did you learn how to make software? I was interested in computers since I was 14. I was studying computer science at the university between 18 and 25 years of age.
I studied theoretical computer science at the Charles university in Prague. Finishing the university was probably the hardest thing in my life (I do not enjoy learning as much as I enjoy creating stuff). But I also think it was the most valuable and productive part of my life and I am very proud of it :)
Here to say I've been using it, maybe the only white listed site on my ad-block. What was the hardest part to implement? The advanced foreground selection was quite hard. It is used e.g. in MagicCut. I wanted to reach the quality of remove.bg (where you pay $2 per image), but it still does not work that well.
Anyway, I think MagicCut works better than all other free tools and many commercial tools, so it can save you a lot of money :)
the below is a reply to the above
You should look at U-2 Net https://github.com/NathanUA/U-2-Net a recently released paper with code that has amazing results I know quite a lot about this research :) The problem is, that people use Photopea for free, so it would have to run on their computers. They would have to download a 200 MB network, and unless they don't have a $2000 GPU, they would have to wait for hours to do such foreground / background detection.
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From the paper: "To facilitate the usage of our design in computation and memory constrained environments, we provide a small version of our U2-Net, called U2-Net† (4.7 MB). The U2-Net† achieves competitive results against most of the SOTA models (see Fig. 1) at 40 FPS." Unless there's something similar but better or they're outright lying, 4.7 MB sounds like an extremely reasonable memory footprint and it's pretrained so nobody's going to max out their GPU. You might want to give it another look. Wow, that sounds great, I will put it into my issues: https://github.com/photopea/photopea/issues/2368
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Not 100% sure, but a GPU is needed to train the network (which can take hours) and the trained networks usually do things in seconds or even faster. Users would still need to download the network, but it wouldn't be very computationally expensive. Such trained network can process the input in seconds on the GPU. If you process the input of the network on a CPU (even with multiple cores), it can take minutes or even hours. And training on a CPU can take weeks :)
I use Photopea regularly when developing web sites. I don't have to fire up my VM or limit myself to GIMP or Krita. The third most popular tech magazine in the Czech Republic, Letem světem Applem, was developed with the help of your tool. Díky! My question: will you ever open-source Photopea, at least partially? Hi, thanks a lot!
A huge part of Photopea is open-sourced and available at https://github.com/photopea?tab=repositories
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I'm scared to even open that repo 😂. What hosting provider are you using that can handle 5 million users in a year? I have a local hosting provider from the Czech Republic. It is just distributing HTML, CSS and JS files (no server-side computations like PHP or SQL databases), so it is not that hard.
Hi! Two questions 1. Does photopea have support for RAW photo files of varying cameras? (.ARW for example) 2. Why do you think Adobe charges so much for their platform when your model is clearly fairly simple to produce (if one person can do it alone) and functions profitably? Hi! Yes, Photopea can open .DNG, .CR2, .NEF and .ARW files :)
There are programs that are much more expensive than Adobe products :) It is hard to tell, but I think it is because there are no reasonable alternatives, or the alternatives are not known very well.
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As a Fuji user, .RAF support coming at some point? Hi, the .RAF format was invented by Fuji and has never been publicly described anywhere. I tried to ask Fuji to provide a description of their format, so that I can implement it into Photopea, but nobody replied :(
I think Fuji does not want you to open their files in any other software than their software.
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I don't think fuji has their own editing software, most people use either Capture One or Lightroom, or Irident X-Transformer to convert into a DNG Photopea can open DNG without any problems :) but it is a real pity they don't store it in DNG directly.
I just discovered this software and it is bloody amazing. As a hobby animator, I'm wondering - Do you have any plans, or have you at least thought about, making an animation software in the same way you have achieved this? Something like Adobe Flash/Animate or Toon Boom Harmony. (I'm already sold on your idea for a video editor, since Davinci Resolve's free version has NEVER been able to render videos for me without crashing) There is a distinct lack of reasonably priced animation software that achieves nearly as much as these two ridiculously expensive subscription programs, without sacrificing something really important to animation. The closest thing to achieving what Animate or Harmony has is Blender's new 2d animate mode, and even then, you have to sacrifice convenient features like easy tweening. An alternative free (or one-purchase) animation software would make me - and so many other people happy. Now that I know this software exists, I'll be sure to donate to its production. Thanks! You are not the first one asking for this :) I wish I could make so many tools, but I am afraid my life is too short for all that work :D
If I manage to make a good team of programmers in the future, I would love to make such animation software.
Is there a comprehensive guide I can find for all the tools in photopea? I’m new to photo editing and still confused by the interface. Photopea is an advanced editor and it is hard to learn simply by using it. I wrote a manual here: www.Photopea.com/learn .
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You made documentation? What kind of unholy programmer from the abyss are you? Don’t let our bosses find out or we’re screwed. I made it after several years of explaining people how to do things in emails, etc :) Now, I can simply send them links to my documentation. It took me less than a week :D
I love using photopea! I open it almost daily. Is there a way to review the source and contribute pull requests? Have you thought about providing an offline or self-hosted release? Thanks! The open-source parts of Photopea are published on our GitHub: https://github.com/photopea?tab=repositories . We provide a self-hosted versions for money, as it needs to be updated regularly.
How would you compare it to photoshop? Photopea has about 90% of features of Adobe Photoshop, but there are some features of Photopea that Photoshop doesn't have (e.g converting PDF, SVG, Sketch, XD, Figma to layered PSD documents).
Also, only Photoshop and Photopea fully support the PSD format, so I think Photopea is the best alternative to Photoshop at the moment.
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What do you think about GIMP? GIMP is great, but it can not work with PSD files properly. Also, the interface is quite different from Adobe Photoshop, and it is hard to use for former Photoshop users.
https://www.facebook.com/photopea/photos/a.1703140446613703/2373211539606587/
Do you pronounce it photo-pea, or photo-pee-ah? I pronounce it Photo-pea, but most of people pronounce it photo-pee-ah.
It is probably the most asked question in our subreddit :) /photopea.
EDIT: I did a quick search and here is what I found :)
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Good to know I got its pronunciation right :D I like photos and I like peas. What made you call it photopea? I wanted it to be PhotoSomething, and I wanted a domain PhotoSomething.com . Most of domains were occupied, until I found Pea :)
Not a question, but I just want to put this out there for all the non-developers, but the fact that Photopea was created by a single programmer is absolutely astounding. As a developer myself, I cannot fathom the productivity of this developer nor have I ever met someone that could be this productive. Teams of 10-20 developers could not match the functionality and feature list of photopea. And actually, here is a question after all, have you ever recorded or livestreamed yourself coding? I'm having a hard time imagining the pace required to be this productive. Do you have an estimate of the number of hours you have put into this? Hi, thanks a lot! I think I put between 15 000 and 20 000 hours into Photopea :) I never recorded myself programming, but most of it is just staring into the wall thinking, opening Youtube or Reddit from time to time (to "relax" a bit), and I writing code once in a while :)
Any chance your program can export files to work with a cnc machine? Sure, just tell me what format does that machine accepts? Is than an open format? Can you use e.g. an SVG?
Manufacturers often create their proprietary formats to make you dependent on their software.
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G-Code is pretty common, although I'm unsure as to what Z-axis information you would capture in an image format unless it was texturized somehow and interpreted that as topography? Maybe like the color coded images to show 3 dimensions in a planar view. I know lasewaterjet cutting and similar that do 2D operations typically ask me for a DXF file or equivalent. I've never used Photopea for this (or even tried) but typically I take a vector format and import into CAD software to generate a DXF for this purpose. I know my media guy can never get me a format I need to import a logo and such for mechanical design. A DXF or similar vector would be amazing if it doesn't exist already. Hi, would you be able to write this into our GitHub? https://github.com/photopea/photopea/issues . And most importantly, would you be able to discuss it there with me, if I have any questions? I never worked with any CNC machine.
Hi !! Can I know about your backend ? There is a webhosting which stores one HTML, one CSS and several JS files. Photopea is written in Javascript and runs completely in a computer of the visitor.
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Have you used any frontend frameworks? No, I wrote my own Javascript, HTML and CSS. I usually prefer to use what I know, instead of learning how to use new tools :)
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How do you handle users that pay for premium? There must be some sort of database right? Yes, there is a database. I just wanted to say, that out of these 7 million people, the database is needed maybe for a hundred of them.
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Not without dinner first Take my upvote, too :)
Are there any new browser features or HTML features that will make your code a lot simpler? I would love if browsers let Photopea know, when Ctrl+T was pressed on the keyboard. People have been using the Ctrl+T shortcut in Adobe Photoshop for decades and almost every week, someone asks why it does not work in Photopea.
At the moment, when you press Ctrl+T in any browser, it opens a new tab (panel), and a we can not do anything about it :( I have been personally arguing about it with browser developers for over five years.
"Fighting" with browser developers is quite a big part of my work, which is quite sad :(
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When in fullscreen Ctrl+T works in both Chrome and Edge, it triggers the transform tool. Maybe prompt the user to switch Photopea to fullscreen ? The website feels like a standalone app so it makes sense to get rid of the browser UI anyway. I think the Ctrl+T should be usable even when not in the fullscreen mode.
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I'm sure you must've researched this thoroughly over the years but maybe stackoverflow seems to have a couple good answers on disabling new tab shortcut keys. Maybe have a look? Esp these 2: 1 - https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38442886/chrome-disable-ctrlt-shortcut - you could make your own extension and then make that extension do the "Free Transform"? 2 - https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18625091/how-to-disable-firefox-new-tab-action-when-pressin-ctrl-and-clicking-a-link-wi I'm no good at js but maybe have a look... I guess I could also just make my own web browser and ask users to install it :D
How about a Desktop version? That'd be great! You can go to Photopea.com and press More - Install Photopea. It will add an icon to your homescreen, which will start Photopea without the browser UI. But it works only in the latest Chrome, Edge and Opera. https://www.facebook.com/photopea/photos/a.1703140446613703/2120885974839146
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What Api does that? Seems chromium only but i wouldn't care. Never heard of that. It is called PWA - progressive web apps, and the app can trigger the installing process https://medium.com/@dhormale/install-pwa-on-windows-desktop-via-google-chrome-browser-6907c01eebe4
What are your plans for the video editor, and how can I keep up to date on its progress? (video editor here that loves what you did with photopea) I do not have any specific plans about the video editor yet. You can follow Photopea on Facebook or Twitter to know about the progress (links in my original post) :)
You mentioned your income is through ads. Have you thought of other avenues for revenue sources or ways to increase your current revenue even more to be able to hire more employees? Yes, I have thought about it, but I don't know about any ways, which could work better than ads.
Most of the current Photopea user can not afford to pay for the software, so I don't want to make half of features available only after the payment.
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Would a premium version that's identical in features but without ads be an option? Unless this is already a thing? It is already a thing :) You can hide ads for $10 for three months. Also, there is no subscription, you pay manually any time you want. Ads come back once it runs out :)
What things does Photoshop do better than your alternative? Photoshop can open almost all RAW image formats (in their Camera Raw program). I think Adobe pays the camera manufacturers, so that they allow Adobe to open raw files from their cameras.
At the moment, Photopea can open only four RAW formats, which cover around 80% of the market.
Do you think that photopea has been a success? I use it for work everyday and I certainly think it is! I think it is the most useful thing I made in my life so far, so it is a success :)
Good stuff. Love a free image editor. Why is this already on the front page, with just 6 comments and 22 points? I don't know much about the Reddit algorithm, but I think it is also about how old the post is. E.g. if you get 20 points in 5 minutes, you will be on top of a post, which received 50 points in an hour.
What's your favourite video game? Also thank you the amount if complete trash I have cropped using photopea is immeasurable I received my first computer when I was 13 and PC games seemed too complicated to me (and most of them were in English, which I did not know well). I never had a playstation or a gameboy. So I never played video games much.
The first game I "understood" and truly enjoyed playing was Serious Sam :) I also spent A LOT of time playing Clash of Clans.
Will it stay free or is there a possibility that you're gonna put a price on that? Photopea has been free to use since the first release seven years ago, and I would like to keep it free to use in the future, too.
Love photopea, I use it all the time! Does anyone trouble you with any legal issues since it's basically an online photoshop? Thanks! I think the similarity of the interface of Photoshop and Photopea (and other photo editors) is a good thing. Imagine if each brand of computers had a different layout of a keyboard, because they wanted to be "different". I am very happy, that I can simply take any keyboard and start typing on it right away.
Maybe one time someone will come and say, that we have to make the background red, because the dark grey color is already used in their program. And we have to rename the Brush tool to "hair on a stick tool", because the Brush tool is already used in their program. But I hope such time will never come :D
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Please make an April 1st version with copyright-friendly tools, that would be awesome. Brush – Hair on a stick Bucket – Metal container Move – Relocate and so on. Edit: April Tools’ Day That is a graet idea! :D
How do you approach creating something that is intuitive? How do you know that your logic is universally understood? Are there any examples of tools, tasks, icons that you have had to change based on feedback? Thank you and great work! The user interface of Photopea has been evolving for seven years and there were probably hundreds of suggestions from users, which I listened to and modified, to get what we have now :)
Hi Ivan, I've used Photopea for a couple of years for basic editing. Congratulations - it's an amazing tool. The only feature that prevents me from upgrading to a paid version is the font selection interface. There are far too many fonts available, they load slowly, are all obscure and not represented well in preview. Would you consider curating/refining the available fonts? Hi, thanks! It is completely fine to use Photopea for free, you don't have to pay for Premium :)
You can mark some fonts with a star, and then, you can display only the "starred" fonts. You can use filters to see e.g. only "sans" fonts and hide "comic" or "handwritten" fonts. You can enable Latin-1 and other language categories, to see only fonts with many letters (only professional fonts support more than 200 letters).
Have you experienced any pushback/pressure from the bigger players? No :) I have been in touch with people from Google, Adobe, Corel, Canva and other companies, evrybody was very friendly and helpful :)
Thanks for making Photopea- I'm certainly loving it. Will there ever be an offline version? Hi, thanks!
A big challenge is, that Photopea can not use fonts from your computer, and it downloads fonts from our server, when you choose to use that font. So changing fonts would not work in an offline version (except of a couple of fonts we could pre-store).
I think the amount of time people spend using their computer offline is decreasing, and will be almost zero at some point :)
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If I use a font I have purchased, is it easy to implement, if you don't have that font on your server? Hi, just press File - Open in Photopea to load a font (TTF or OTF file) :)
Do you plan to keep photopea solely browser based? Many people think that browser programs are slower or "less capable" than desktop programs, but it is not true in the last five years. So a "download and install" version of Photopea would not have many advantages.
I could provide an offline version of Photopea, but at the moment, most of money come from ads, which would not work offline :/
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You can try and make an Electron app, I know its essentially a browser but it would give that "native" feel to users. Hi, you can already press More - Install Photopea in Photopea and use it as a PWA :)
Great. Now can we please start working on a viable PDF editor that doesn't cost hundreds of dollars per year? Photopea can already do it to some degree :) have you tried it?
The PDF format was not meant to be edited further. But we are improving.
Thanks for developing Photopea. After your last AMA, I started using it. Is there a way for size of a new document to default to image dimensions on the clipboard? That's one of the handiest things in Photoshop so you don't have to either enter manually or overguess then crop down later. The size of a new document should be set by default to the dimension of the content of the clipboard.
But it works only in Chrome, Edge and Opera. Firefox did not implement the necessary standard yet. Don't know about Safari :/
You mentioned you plan on making a video editor. Have you considered an Illustrator alternative as well? Photopea already has many vector-related capabilities. It can open, edit and save SVG and PDF files. Somehow, I feel like a video editor would be more fun to make than an advanced vector editor.
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Didn't know it supported editing SVGs. How does it compare to something like Inkscape? The interface is a lot different than Inkscape. Just try it and see how it works :)
I know this is a long shot, but any chance I can join on board with little to no knowledge so I can learn (for free of course)? 😁 It could be doing menial tasks for all I care. If not, any advice for someone like me wanting to change career path and code? I'm just tired of what I've been doing so I just recently starting some online coding courses but would like to learn more hands on if possible. Hoping to change career path for the future. Well, if I spend time teaching you, I will have to invest less time into developing Photopea :D
I have been often tired of what I did, I get tired of Photopea-related work from time to time. There is not just a bad job and a good job, there are many things in between. But whenever you have to choose between a simple goal and a hard goal, don't be afraid to go for a hard goal :)
How did you begin to scale up the workforce? What positions did you prioritise and how did the recruitment process go? I'm in an early process of starting up a web application and can see it being difficult going from working alone on a project to trusting people to share the same determination to grow it. Thanks I do not have any team, I still work on Photopea alone.
Hi. Great stuffs. I will definitely give it a try soon. May I give a suggestion ? I use GIMP for Image editing since I usually have to make some illustrations for my work. And GIMP provides me with the function of adding Text from another format, like LaTeX (to write math formula). Do you think this would be possible to implement in your app ? Hi, is the LaTeX text rasterized to pixels after you insert it? Or you can modify it in GIMP?
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the LINUX version of GIMP has a module in the Render section which allows me to type in the LaTeX code and product an image of the formula. I am not really used to the terminology of image like vector or raster image. But once the formula is produced, it is not modifiable. So if I messed up, I have to redo the process from the beginning. We don't have such thing in Photopea at the moment.
I used to write my masters thesis in https://www.sharelatex.com/ . You can also convert LaTeX to a PNG image here: http://latex2png.com/ (right-click the image - Copy Image, and paste it in Photopea).
Can it do animations? The only thing I use photoshop for at this point is it's animation ability, especially it's keyframe animations, where you can make a single frame last however many seconds you like. If it can do that, i can finally delete photoshop. Hi, we do not have such animation capabilities as Photoshop. But there is a special mechanism for making animations from layers: https://www.photopea.com/learn/animations
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This kind of animation capability is exactly what I was looking for. Does it allow you to view the animation as a preview before you choose EXPORT? Of course :) Just drag-and-drop a GIF into Photopea and try to export it as a GIF, it will take you around seven seconds :)
what was your eureka moment for photopea that whoa this is possible? Sometimes, when I learn about a new algorithm or a method, I wonder how elegant and ingenious it is :) Like - the person who came up with it should have been really smart, I wish I was also that smart :D
Have you considered using Patreon? Have you considered letting people subscribe for a fixed period if no ads? Hi, we already offer a Premium account, where you pay and it hides ads for a period of time. I know about Patreon, but I feel a bit uncomfortable about accepting money for nothing in return.
Is there a downloadable version available/in the works? You can go to www.Photopea.com and press More - Install Photopea, to get an icon to your homescreen.
https://www.facebook.com/photopea/photos/a.1703140446613703/2120885974839146
i tried using it on my display tablet, there doesn't seem to be any pressure sensitivity? Hi, try to update your tablet (drivers, browser, os, etc). But it works on the latest iPad and on my old Android phone (it tracks the pressure of my finger). If it does not help, try to report it to the tablet manufacturer (as it will not work in any website, not just Photopea).
Is there support for sprite editing tools or just tools in general for game devs? Do you mean generating sprites, etc? It can do most of things Photoshop can do, but if you need something more, you can always suggest it here :) https://github.com/photopea/photopea/issues
What made you decide to create a free photo editor? It was just an experiment of analyzing PSD files in a browser. I gradually improved it. I did not want to make a photo editor during the first two years of work. But at some point, I realised - hey, it should not be that hard to make it into a photo editor.
How is this compared to GIMP? Hi, you can read this article: https://www.techrepublic.com/article/photoshop-alternative-no-its-not-gimp/
But it is about Photopea from two years ago. Photopea improved significantly since then.
So is it WASM or just regular old JS + WebGL? I found this looking for a browser based paint.net alternative a while back and thought it was awesome, but the controls were a bit too advanced/inaccessible for my requirements. If you're serious about growing the dev team I'm a self employed engineer if you want to hit me up. I wrote only JS and GLSL (for GPU processing). I use three WASM libraries, which I did not make. Thanks for your offer, but I would like to hire someone I could work with in person.
I’ve been using photopea ever since your previous AMA a year ago. My question is: how often are do you AMA and how did it impact traffic to photopea? I did only three AMAs with about a year between them. The traffic grows by about 10 - 20%, which lasts for a day or two :)
How much time have you invested in creating this tool? Or what's your weekly time investment? I never measured it, but I think it is about the "regular" 40 hours a week.
Did you know most of what you needed before starting on Photopea or did you learn as you went along with adding new features? What unexpected difficulties presented themselves while working on Photopea? It is like I knew how to use a chisel, but I never carved a statue that big.
I learned many practical things (state-of-art algorithms etc), I used many things I learned at the university, which I thought I will never use :)
How do I start contributing to Photopea? What would you like to contribute with? You can help us find bugs or help beginners at our subreddit: www.reddit.com/photopea
I hope this hasn't been asked, but why haven't you made a downloadable/fully offline version of your program yet? I know that as soon as you load the site you can use it offline, but there are times when people need to edit pictures without any internet connection at all. The online version makes it much easier to release new versions and do updates. I update Photopea about 30 times a week (with minor fixes).
Also, it feels a little uncofmortable to imagine, that someone is using a two year old version of Photopea and is cursing me because of some bug, which I already fixed, and I can not do anything about it at that moment :/
What technologies did you use to build this? I used Javascript and WebGL :)
It's really great that you're offering an alternative to Photoshop! I was wondering, what language or software did you use to write Photopea? I wrote my code in Javascript, but in my opinion, the language is not important at all.
The best language is the one you know how to use. Also, for me, it is important, that there is a way to execute my code fast, which is possible with Javascript in modern browsers.
[removed] Hi, you should not use Auto-translate, as we have a professional Swedish translation. Just press More - Language - Svenska. You can switch languages without restarting Photopea.
Photopea.com should be in Swedish the first time you open it, if Swedish is set as your main language.
What's your End User Licensing Agreement looking like? How is this licensed? I like to know before end users start requesting such as im sure someone now wants to install this in a corporate environment... Photope works in your computer and it never sends any data outside your computer. It is just like buying the cheapest calculator and using it. You don't get a licence to use such calculator, the numbers that you enter into a calculator don't leave the calculator.
Our terms of service are here: https://www.photopea.com/privacy.html
What's your opinion of the current state and direction of front-end development? I think I don't know much about it. I write my JS code in notepad and that code is precisely the code which runs in the browser of a user (without any modification). I did not change the way I develop webapps in the last six years.
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Straight up Windows Notepad? Not notepad++ or Visual Studio Code or Atom or anything else??? I use Notepad++ :)
Are you planning in translating it? If so, I'd be glad to work on the italian version. Hi, it is already translated into 40 langauges, just press More - Language - Italiano :)
Hey Ivan, i'm very impressed by your work, but i'm an avid GIMP user. As you can imagine switching editors is always a hassle once you've got used to one. So can you give me some bullet points why it would be worth to switch from GIMP to Photopea? Thanks for the AMA! Hi, I think you should stay with GIMP, since you already know how to use it :) And if there is nothing specific you miss in GIMP, you probably don't need such features :)
Hey ivanhoe90 I noticed today that the pen tool behaves backward when clicking the second point and dragging. It's like the curve goes the opposite direction than anyone would expect. I almost filed a github issue on it but I just didn't have time. Is that a bug? Oh, I am very sorry, it is fixed now.
Hi, I wanted to know what's your story. That is your biography. And what did you study too get here? How did you get the idea for photopea? Hi, I gave a talk about it in France a year ago :) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZmaeC_Ma5A
DUDE! Your program saved me in the final semester of my Masters. I needed to upload images and I don't have a scanner so I used my phone and fixed the colour and tones in Photopea. Bless you for your hard work. I guess my question is what kind of cheese do you like? Thanks a lot! If you only knew how happy I am about such comments :)
I like all cheeses, as I think they are all amazing, each one in a different way.
I love this software and I use it daily, Every time I think to myself "I wonder if can also do" the answer has been yes. I love showing my co-workers this software while working in Citrix, it always blows people away that this works. Question: Any change of seeing a feature that doesn't automatically export local files to the download folder? I would love to select where I want to automatically save them or just save as > location (The google drive system already amazing though) It's that one minor thing that makes me end up with File(17).png Hi, thanks! The saving mechanism depends on the settings of the web browser. The browser usually handles the file saving the same way for all websites. So just change the browser settings - make the browser ask you about where you want the files to be saved (we can not do anything about it as a website).
Do you think Photopea can have more active users than Photoshop? And why? It is hard to tell. There are many features in Photoshop and other editors, which Photopea can not do. Even if Photopea has more active users, it does not mean it makes more money.
Well I'm 9 hours late and maybe it was already asked and answered, but if you feel like responding... do you have to recreate stuff like puppet warp or quick select from scratch? Like you have to go back and read some old white paper on the algorithm, and then sort of reinvent the wheel? Hi, that is correct, there are usually no free implementations of such algorithms, and if there are, they are not in Javascript or are not good enough :/
Actually, the Puppet Warp is based on a 2009 paper from Takeo Igarashi. I found a mistake in it and I wrote him an email, and it took me several emails to persuade him that he really made a mistake in his paper :) But many other authors refuse to look deep into papers they wrote a long time ago.
Who would you prefer Photopea being aquired by, and why? I don't know. I am not looking for an acquisition at the moment.
I'm getting into video editing. I'm a noob to photoshop and video editing. Are there any tools in this that can complement my video editing? I was thinking of being able to create custom graphics for the videos but what else are the capabilities? I dont know much about video editing, but you can use Photopea for photo editing. I think the more time you spend learning a tool, before actually using it, the less time you will spend in total (e.g. doing something by "trial and error" in 3 hours vs. learning it in 1 hour and doing it in 30 minutes, because you learned how to do it).
How were you able to acquire such a vast amount of knowledge about editors and programming? I studied programming at the university for many years. Learning how to use Photoshop or any other editor is easier, but still can take weeks or months.
the below is a reply to the above
I'm currently studying programming at uni too. Am I correct in assuming that the vast majority of the code for photopea is JavaScript since it's a web application? Yes, I wrote my programs in Javascript :) But I did not have any Javascript class ever in my life. I think the programming skills are not related to the knowledge of a specific programming language.
Could you comment on https://github.com/photopea/JS-guide a bit? I don't quite understand why you're against using syntactic sugar. Especially let, const, and strict equality. I'm not claiming to be an expert at all, but most of these guidelines are in opposition to modern day JS practices. So I was just curious if you could elaborate on your decision making! I think it is up to you what you write. But I am used to writing as "simple" code as possible, and it just looks cleaner to me if you use "var" instead of let/const (and it has no impact on the speed).
[deleted] I think the knowledge is the most important. Also, it should be someone friendly, calm, rational, etc :D
Hey, I don't know if this has been asked before but since you have mentioned that Photopea can run offline after it's been loaded (meaning that there is no server backend), have you ever considered packing the app into a desktop app (e.g. with Electron or nw.js)? Hi, I think opening a website is faster and more comfortable than downloading and installing something. Also, the electron version would be hard to update (unless it is just an iframe with Photopea inside it).
Have you ever considered making Photopea into a mobile app? Hi, half of our users use Photopea on phones. It works quite well. If you look for "photopea" on Youtube, most of videos are recorded on phones.
My Reddit client doesn’t have a comment search feature, but have you considered bundling an electron version for people to download? Seems like a quick win, and even gets around ad blockers. Or if it’s a premium only offering, is just icing on the cake Hi, I was a bit lazy to maintain a separate version of Photopea. I don't see any advantages it would have over the basic version.
submitted by 500scnds to tabled [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 22:47 StevenStevens43 Fergus I, first king of Scots

Fergus I, first king of Scots
Fergus I:
According to Scottish gaelic historian George Buchanan, Fergus I was the first king of Scots in around 330 BC.
Scholars and historians appear to misinterpret this with Buchanan saying fergus was the first king of Scotland.
But king of Scots, is not the same thing as King of Scotland.
Fergus I)
King Fergus I (said to have flourished c. 330 B.C.),[1]#cite_note-1) is generally identified as the son of Ferchard, Prince of Scots in Ireland and is the first of the line of Legendary kings of Scotland.
Link for photo
George Buchanan
Fiacha:
Now, according to Irish legend, this boy would have been Fiacha, the son of Oengus Tuirmech Temrach, who exiled his son from Ireland.
By todays standards, Oengus Tuirmech Temrach would be considered a child molesterer, as legends attribute him to raping his own daughter whilst drunk, and this is how Fiach was born.
Also, the date would be sometime between 262-232 BC, according to Keating's.
It is the dates given by Keatings that i find most accurate with contemporary history, as shown elsewhere in previous articles.
Oengus Tuirmech Temrach
Óengus is said to have fathered Fíacha on his own daughter when drunk, and to have put him in a boat, wrapped in a purple robe with a golden fringe and accompanied by treasure, and set him out to sea – hence the epithet fer mara, "man of the sea". He was found and brought up by fishermen, and became the ancestor of several High Kings of Ireland and the later Dál Riata monarchs of Scotland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn interprets his epithet as meaning "the reckoner of Tara", saying that "by him was 'reckoning' first made in Ireland".[2] Geoffrey Keating gives his epithet as Tuirbeach, "ashamed", because of the incestuous conception of Fíacha.[3]
He reigned for thirty or sixty years, and died at Tara, succeeded by his nephew Conall Collamrach. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Ptolemy VI Philometor in Egypt (180–145 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 262–232 BC,
Dal riata:
However, as you may have noticed above, Irish legend does not attribute Fiacha to having become king of Scotland, but merely the king of the kingdom that would later become Dal Riata, and then eventually Scotland.
Oengus
He was found and brought up by fishermen, and became the ancestor of several High Kings of Ireland and the later Dál Riata monarchs of Scotland.
Link for photo
Dal Riata
Kingdom of Alba:
However, the fact that the Dal Riata became the kingdom of Scotland, is just to make it easier for the modern Latin speaker to understand.
In actual fact, Dal riata merged with the kingdom of Alba, before a unified Alba and Dal riata would become Scotland.
Dal Riata
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) (/dælˈriːədə/) was a Gaelic kingdom that encompassed the western seaboard of Scotland and the north-eastern corner of Ireland, on each side of the North Channel). At its height in the 6th and 7th centuries, it covered what is now Argyll ("Coast of the Gaels") in Scotland and part of County Antrim in Northern Ireland.[1] After a period of expansion, Dál Riata eventually became associated with the Gaelic Kingdom of Alba.
Link for photo
The purple robe, gold fringe, and deep blue sea
Alba:
Alba, is a kingdom which derives from the etymological root word "Albany", which was the name of the Island of britain, prior to the Roman invasion, when Albion/Britain, got pushed to North of Hadrians wall by the Romans.
After this period, Alba pertained only to the land North of Hadrians wall.
Etymology
The oldest attestation of the toponym comes from the Greek language (Ἀλβίων)[6] and Latinised as Albiōn (genitive Albionis), derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem \Albi̯iū* (oblique \Albiion-) and survived in Old Irish as *Albu (genitive Albann). The name originally referred to Britain as a whole, but was later restricted to Caledonia (giving the modern Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba).
Picts and Albannachs:
Now, apparently the Dal Riata were merging with Scots already in Albany.
Therefore it is a myth that Scots were solely Irish.
The Scots likely arrived an Angus back when Oengus Olmucaid was said to have invaded Scotland back in the year 1000 BC approximately.
Around the same time as all the other Scandinvians likely landed on the shores of Britain and Ireland.
Also, apparently, they were here to help fight the Picts and the Britons.
But as there were no such thing as Britains at this point in history, they were more likely here to help fight Albannachs, from North of the Humber.
As well as Picts.
Fergus I)
The "first king of Scotland", according to the fictitious chronologies of Boece and Buchanan, is said to have come to Scotland from Ireland about 330 B.C. to assist the Scots already settled in Scotland against the joint attack of the Picts and Britons).
Picts:
Now, we already know who the Albannachs likely are, they are the peoples that have been living in Albany North of the Humber since around 1112 BC, and are likely the exact same peoples that have been living in Loegria, south of the Humber, since 1112 BC.
But who are the Picts?
Well, the Picts are probably a peoples that got pushed farther and farther North by Albannachs, until they ended up living in a kingdom north of the Forth and Clyde.
So pretty much the Scottish highlands.
Therefore, we likely actually had six countries in Albion.
Cornwall, Loegria, Cambria, Nort Humber Land, Albany, and a kingdom that nobody recognised, Pictland.
Picts
The Picts were a group of Celtic-speaking peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late British Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from early medieval texts and Pictish stones. Their Latin name, Picti, appears in written records from Late Antiquity to the 10th century. They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde.
Link for photo
Pictland
Old Brythonic:
Now, there was a few differences though, between Picts and Albannachs.
Language for one.
Caledonians
t[2] augmented by fugitive Brythonic) resistance fighters fleeing from Britannia. This is, however, contested by the fact, that according to the book "Life of Saint Columba", the Irish emissary needed an interpreter in order to speak to the Pictish king or convert certain individual in their kingdom. The Caledonian tribe
Common Brythonic:
The fact that one "Brythonic speaker" required an interpretor to speak to another brythonic speaker, probably has to do with the fact that the Picts are likely indigenous to the Island of Albion, and pre-dated any invasions from Gaul or Scandinavia in 1112 BC, and they likely spoke a Brythonic language which was older, than any Brythonic language the Irish were using at this point in time in history.
In fact, they were probably speaking a language which pre-dated the word "Brythonic", and dated back to the days when Britain was called Albion, and is unlikely Albannachs would have named thir language Brythonic.
Common brythonic
Common Brittonic (Old English: Brytisċ; Welsh: Brythoneg; Cornish: Brythonek; Breton: Predeneg) was a Celtic language spoken in Britain and Brittany. It is also variously known as Old Brittonic, British, and Common or Old Brythonic.
It is a form of Insular Celtic, descended from Proto-Celtic (P-Celtic), a theorized parent tongue that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was diverging) into separate dialects or languages.[2][3][4][5] Pictish is linked and likely as a sister language or a fifth branch.[6]
Tattooed people:
Also, the picts did not refer to themselves as Picts.
This was the Roman word to describe them, and the word meant "Tattooed people".
Link for photo
Picts
Region:
The Picts themselves would have likely just referred to themselves based upon whatever area or region they are from.
History
Pictland had previously been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii.[15] These Romans also used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones, Taexali and Venicones.[16] But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups.[17]
Link for photo
Regions
Bede:
Now, Bede, the English historian, writes that Picts originated from foreign lands such as Scythia.
However this is contested by Scholars and Historians.
History
The Pictish Chronicle, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the early historiographers such as Bede, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Holinshed, etc. all present the Picts as conquerors of Alba from Scythia. However, no credence is now given to that view.[14]
Link for photo
Bede
Octavius:
Now, the fact that modern day English professors and scholars have difficulty believing that Picts could have frequented other countries aswell, likely goes back to the first ever Roman emperor, Octavius.
You see, Octavius changed his name to Augustus to "hide" his plebe genes.
Augustus
Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.). However, though some of his contemporaries did,[34] there is no evidence that Octavius ever himself officially used the name Octavianus, as it would have made his modest origins too obvious.[35]
Link for photo
Octavius/Augustus
Alban Hills:
You see, the history that modern day English professors and scholars are using, is quite simply the same rhetoric that was being spread by the Romans to cover up Augustus Genes, which they felt was an embarrasment to them.
Origin
The Octavii originally came from the Volscian town of Velitrae, in the Alban Hills. The historian Suetonius writes,
Alba longa:
Now the peoples in the Alban hills, were the peoples from Alba longa, and they were the barbaric plebes that the Romans had conquered, so their first emperor having Genes that came from Alba longa, was pretty embarrassing.
Alba longa
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin) city in Central Italy, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome.
Link for photo
Lake Albano
Tam o Shanter:
Now, the main thing that made him stand out as a plebe from Alba longa, was the fact that he had red hair.
Branches and cognomena
During the Republic, none of the Octavii of this family bore any cognomen other than Rufus, and even this is rarely mentioned. The surname, which means "red," may have been obtained by one of the Octavii because he had red hair.[7][
Link for photo
The Tam o Shanter
Red haired people:
Now, whilst many people might like to think that red hair is just something that can pop up anywhere, in actual fact, this is not quite the case.
You see, if someone has red hair, it is because they very likely have some pictish genes, as the Picts were red heads.
History
In AD 83 or 84, led by Calgacus, the Caledonians' defeat at the hands of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at Mons Graupius is recorded by Tacitus. Tacitus avoids using terms such as king to describe Calgacus and it is uncertain as to whether the Caledonians had single leaders or whether they were more disparate and that Calgacus was an elected war leader only. Tacitus records the physical characteristics of the Caledonians as red hair and long limbs.
Link for photo
Red haired people chasing Greeks in Greece, 340 BC
Summary:
So whilst it may be correct that Picts were here before any invasions from Scythia, Bede would also be correct that there were Picts elsewhere, that almost definitely took refuge on Albion shores, amongst their fellow picts.
Also, how reliable is British history from Greeks or Italians?
Here is a map of Britain according to Ptolemy.
Link for photo
Ptolemy map of Britain
Black:
Though whilst Octavius had red hair, he also had black skin.
Augustus
Augustus was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC,
Link for photo
Augustus
Thutmose IV:
This might suggest the adopted son of Julius Caesar was from the Thutmose IV lineage, as the pharoah Thutmose IV also had reddish hair, despite being Sudanese.
Buriel and mummy
The forearms are crossed over the chest, right over left. His hair, which is parted in the middle, is about 16 cm (6.3 in) long and dark reddish-brown. His ears are also pierced. Elliot Smith estimated his age to be 25–28 years or possibly older.[23]
Link for photo
Thutmose IV
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 11:18 kcluqhto Movierulz 2020: Download Free Bollywood, Hollywood And Tamil Movies

Movies are the source of entertainment for all ages of people. Everyone loves downloading and streaming movies. There are people who can afford to watch and then there are others who cannot. If you are one of the above-mentioned people then this article is for you. To know more about the interesting options like Movie4Me to stream and download your favorite pick. Just stay tuned till the end.
Due to the Coronavirus Pandemic entire world is in a state of panic, fear, uncertainty and chaos. Citizen of the world are currently practising self-isolation and trying to find a way to keep themselves entertained. Do you want to keep your boredom away? If yes, we have brought to you a website called ‘Movie4Me’ where you can watch and download all the latest movies in HD quality for free. There are millions of people are busy searching free movie download website on the web but only a few people know about Movie4Me. For the unversed, Movie4Me website is the second largest free movie download website after Tamilrockers.
If you love watching movies irrespective of language or genres, Movierulz would never disappoint you. Yes, Movie4Me is regarded as the undisputed king of not only movies but also TV shows, web series and desi drama. According to reports, Movie4Me website has over 30 million monthly active users. The website is mostly visited by Indian then followed by the United States, United Arab Emirates, Australia, Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom.
To keep your lockdown entertained, we have decided to write an article about Movie4Me highlighting its benefits and drawbacks. Movie4Me website is nothing but a treasure of movies and TV shows and it is regarded as one of the most trusted and popular free movies download sites across the globe. If you are looking for free movie download sites then visiting Movie4Me.com is highly recommended. Unlike other movies downloading sites, Movie4Me has been functioning for years and that is the reason why it has millions of daily visitors.
We all know that Movie4Me.com is not the only website out there but we can say that there is no website that can be trusted except Movie4Me when it comes to downloading movies for free. Since Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared 21-days nationwide lockdown, the traffic of Movie4Me has exponentially surged and it is likely to be increased further in the near future. There are various reasons why the traffic of Movie4Me has skyrocketed and one of them is cinema halls and theatres are remain closed throughout the country and people are not allowed to venture out from the house since April 15, 2020.

About Movie4Me

Video Piracy has been on a rise in the last couple of years. When it comes to Video Piracy the one name that comes to everyone’s mind is Movie4Me. Movie4Me is an online movie-streaming website that is known for pirating the newly-released movies. Whether it is Hollywood, Bollywood, or Tollywood, you will find movies from all movie-industries on this website as soon as they release in the cinemas.
As I have said that not every one of us can afford to go to the cinema or get a subscription to options like Netflix and other such. Movie4Me is a type of website that allows users to download and stream movies for free. You can stream and download movies in HD. It has all types of movies be it Hollywood, Bollywood, and south – Indian movies. It also has Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, and dubbed movies in Hindi.
You may go through a particular genre if you want. Be it horror, action, thriller, documentary, sci-fi, crime, and comedy. Also, romantic, historic, family, 18+ movies, or any other type. Movie4Me provides every type of Hollywood, Tollywood, Bollywood, and Kollywood movies.
Though, there is no doubt that it is free and you get all those favorite movies free of cost. But Movie4Me is a piracy website that offers content illegally. And because of the copyright issues. It is banned in most countries along with India.
Movie4Me changes its domain name frequently to keep itself available. It operates websites through several different domains like Movie4Me.pc, Movie4Me. nz, Movie4Me. cm, Movie4Me. gd, Movie4Me. ac, Movie4Me. in, Movie4Me. com, Movie4Me. to, Movie4Me. tv, Movie4Me. hp, Movie4Me. Co.
On Movie4Me you can find movies from various genres, release years, and quality. All the movies are sorted alphabetically for easy searching. A search bar is also provided to search for movies by their name. After finding the movie that you want to watch you can find its download links. You can also stream the movie online without having to download it. You can add subtitles, change quality, change the speed of the movie using the features provided in the players. Torrent download links are also provided. On the movie’s page, you can find the details about the movie like description, genre, star cast, country, release year, etc.
What is Movie4Me? Before delving into deeper about Movie4Me.com, let us tell you that it is an illegal website and if you are a citizen of India and the US and explore Movie4Me, you are likely to be punished. Yes, it is one of the thousands of websites, which has been banned by the US and India.
You must be wondering why it got banned? The reason is quite simple, websites like Movie4Me leak all the movies released in the theatres or OTT platforms and owing to that producer of the film or series have to suffer a huge loss. Due to websites like Movie4Me.com, the box office collection of not only Bollywood but Tollywood or Hollywood movies are badly affected.
There have been everlasting efforts made to curb piracy in India but looks like their efforts seem to have gone wasted. Yes, despite action taken against Movie4Me or other illegal sites, they still continue to leak all the movies with impunity. Movie4Me is one of the most notorious sites to offer copyrighted contents mainly movies, TV shows and web series before or hours after their release dates. That is the reason why still millions of people use it to download and watch movies for free.
Movie4Me does not leave any opportunity to lure citizens making them download copyrighted contents by offering them each and every movie they come across with. Talking about its homepage, irrespective of language or genres, it has all the latest movies featured for illegal download. Besides providing a download link, Movie4Me.com provides a brief synopsis about the film and its run time. Movie4Me is surely a site, where you get all the latest HD movies within hours of their release. Unlike another website, it uploads Scam or theatre print on the release date of the film but a few days later it replaces it with the HD version.

How To Download The Movie4Me App?

If you are not comfortable in downloading a movie from the desktop using Movie4Me App, then we have yet another option to do so. Besides Movie4Me.com website, the developers of the site had released its app, which is no longer available on Google Play Store. If you want to download Movie4Me app, you will have to take supports of some third-party sites. The app has been designed keeping in mind user experience and it has a very user-friendly structure.
Movie4Me or Movie Rulz is a free movie downloading an app that serves millions of people. When it comes to its designing part, it is user-friendly. It is beautifully segregated in all the categories. Movie4Me is said to be undisputed kings when it comes to streaming or downloading Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Hindi and English movies, web series, TV shows, desi drama or documentaries.
According to reports, Movie4Me app is available for Android and iOS, Smart TV and PC, so you can enjoy it on the favourite medium. It is to be noted that you can not download Movie rulz App from an official source such as Google Play Store before it is not legal. So you can download the application by using third-party sources on your phones such as Hindi Links 4u.
While using this app make sure to use Wifi because it consumes a lot of internet data. Movie4Me is a free movie app to watch the contents without spending data and so that you do not have those annoying cuts that they happen when the connection speed is not very good.

Movie4Me App Features

Before downloading Movie4Me Android app, it is quite important to know about its features. There is no doubt about some of its unique features but we would urge you to use some legal options such as Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video and MX Player. We have listed down some of its features below, which you can have a look.
Looking for apps to download movies or series online, you have come to the right location. If you would have thought that downloading movies from the mobile application was impossible, you were wrong. We have brought you Movie4Me app, which has thousands of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Hindi and English HD movies, which you can download for free.
If you really want to download all the latest movies, you can visit Movie4Me.com website at your own risk or download Movie4Me apk. Movie4Me is surely one of the best applications to watch Hindi movies and download Tamil movies for free. Besides movies or TV shows, Movie rulz app has an option allowing users to watch Live TV. It definitely has a wide catalogue of content in addition, divided into categories. It has personalization themes, views and most importantly, everything is in Latin.

How To Download Movies from Movie4Me Website?

As we have told you at the beginning that it is a piracy website and using it for streaming or download purpose in India is a crime. However, if you still want to access the site and download movies, then you need to follow below steps to do so.

Movie4Me New Links 2020

Similar to other torrent websites such as Tamilrockers, Movie4Me keeps changing its domain in order to not to get caught by the cybercrime. Changing the domain frequently reduces the chances of being caught by the cybersecurity. Movie4Me is one of the most notorious piracy websites, which lets users stream or download all the latest Tamil movies, English Dubbed Hindi, Malayalam Movies, Hindi Movies, Hollywood Movies, Hollywood Dual Audio Movies, Web Series, TV shows for free.
The website has millions of monthly visitors. The main domain of Movie4Me had once blocked by the Indian government Anti piracy cell with the help of ISP internet service provider of India and Search Engine Portal functioning in India.

Best Movie4Me Alternatives: Download Latest HD Movies From Movie rulz 2020

If you did not find Movie4Me worthy to visit, you must have knowledge about the website which are better than Movie4Meor Movie Rulz. Keeping in mind user’s choice, we have brought you some of the best alternatives of Movie4Me, which will surely help you. The following Movie4Me alternatives have plenty of contents including Movies, TV shows, TV series, web series, desi drama or documentaries that can be downloaded and streamed online for free. The website we have mentioned below would not irritate you with their pop up ads.
As per the analysis by Tubular Insights which stated that in 2020 comes around, 80% of the world’s internet traffic will be affected by online video streaming. Due to the increase in traffic then you are looking for Movie4Me alternative. Here are the lists. For the better user experience, we have rechecked all the below links which is working fine. Movie4Me is known for providing all the latest Movies, TV Shows, and videos but people who regularly visit the torrent website might have known that there are several domains of Movie4Me have been blocked. If the scenario is like that, so, how can we depend on a single domain Movie4Me.com?
Looking at the importance of free movies downloading sites, we have shortlisted some of the best alternatives to Movie rulz.

What are the best legal alternatives for Movie rulz?

There are several alternatives out there such as Tamilrockers, Tamilgun, Tamilyogi, Khatrimaza, Filmyhit, Movie4Me and others but all of them are illegal websites. Keeping in mind the dangers of illegal websites, we have enlisted some of the best and legal alternatives of Movie4Me.
Nowadays, people are addicted to watch and download movies online and they can’t wait so many days for movies to come on TV or legal platforms. There are some legal websites or OTT platforms such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hotstar, MX Players and other offering all new movies and TV series within days of their official release.

What are the best Movie4Me Alternatives?

Movie4Me is surely one of the most popular and visited piracy sites across the world. However, there have been people who did not like the site and might be busy searching for its alternatives. If you are one of those people, then do no worry, we have brought to you a list of best and free Movie4Me alternatives. Here are the best Movie4Me.com alternatives in 2020:

Movie4Me Movies Categories

Movie4Me leaks movies ranging from Bollywood, Hollywood, Tollywood and Pakistani movies. When you visit 4Movie4Me.com, you will see various categories that we have mentioned below. You can check out the categories of movies which Movie4Me leaks on its website:

What are the best legal alternatives to Movie4Me.com?

After introducing to some of the best and illegal alternatives, we have brought to you a list of free and legal Movie4Me alternatives. The above-mentioned websites are great but they are illegal and could be banned at any time. Keeping in mind the dangers of illegal websites, we have enlisted some of the best and legal alternatives to Movie4Me. Take a look at the list of legal Movie4Me alternatives:

Movie4Me Website: Movie Rulz Latest HD Movies Download Site

If you are looking for free movie download sites, you have come to the right place. We have got you covered everything about Movie4Me website, Movie Rulz or Movie4Me app, which are considered the best platform to download movies, TV shows, Series and drama in HD quality. Watching movies online or web series for free has always been a hot topic and people are tired of visiting fake movie downloading sites. Making your work easier, we have come up with the best and free movie downloading site and it is Movie Rulz, Movie4Me ms or Movie4Me Telugu.
Movie4Me.com or Movie4Mez website used to provide Tamil movies to download but now they have extended their services and now offering Bollywood, Kollywood, Mollywood or Hollywood movies in all the formate (360p, 420p, 720p or 1080p). Apart from Movie4Me website, you can also download Tamil movies and Telugu movies from Movie Rulz Android app. Ever since Movie4Me was established, the website has been offering HD movies for free.
As per the report, Movie4Me app was disappeared for some period of time due to its legality issue. Before delving into more about Movie4Me, let us tell you that, this is an illegal or kind of torrent website, which the Indian Government has banned. Tamil Movies Download Sites
As we all know that nothing comes for free on the internet, Movie4Me might steal your personal information while using the website. As a respectful organisation, we would not suggest or recommend using Movie4Me website for streaming or downloading purpose. You must be feeling happy to get to know about free movie downloading site, Movierlz but illegal is illegal. If you ever caught using the torrent website, Indian Government has authorized to punish you as per the Anti piracy act.

Is it safe to watch movies on Movie4Me?

No, watching, download, sharing, or uploading of Pirated Content is punishable by the law. Although, different countries have different laws regarding Piracy. In countries like India and USA, Piracy is illegal. The person found guilty will be warned, or in some cases, legal actions can also be taken against him/her. But the laws are not really strict for people watching/downloading the movies. It’s rare to see anyone getting arrested for downloading/streaming pirated movies online. Most of the arrests have been made for uploading the pirated content online.
There are other things to worry about while watching movies on sites like Movie4Me. Sites like fmovies, 0123movies, Movie4Me earn money by placing ads on their websites. These ads, popups, and redirects can take you to sites containing malicious software, malware, adware, and various kinds of viruses. So, it is highly recommended to have a good Antivirus installed on your system before watching movies on such sites. I will advise you to install an Ad-Blocker and a VPN too to be on the safer side.

Is Movie4Me Banned In India?

Movie4Me.com website is an illegal or kind of torrent site and visiting any illegal websites in India might land you in trouble. The Indian government had banned thousands of websites and Movie4Me.com Tamilrockers was one of them.

Why Movie4Me has become so popular?

You might have visited dozens of free movies download websites, but have you ever visit Movie4Me.com? It might be an illegal site but it never breaks the trust of millions of users. The reason why it became quite popular among the masses is it provides all the movies in multiple formats ranging from 360p, 420p, 780p and 1080p.
As per space, you have left in your device, you can opt to download the format. The website showcases how much size a particular format will take to get it downloaded. If you are downloading a movie from Movie4Me.com, opting for 420p or 300 MB size option will be highly recommended. If you are downloading any Tollywood or Hollywood movies, the size will provide you dual audio quality and subtitle making it easier for non-native language to watch the film with the flow. Doesn’t these options are worth to visit it on repeat?
As soon as English or Hollywood movies release in India, Movie4Me does not take much time to upload movies Hindi version or Dubbed version on its websites since its millions of users do not know the English language. That could be the reason behind its soaring popularity among Indians. Movie4Me website is designed very well and has options to navigate each and every category of downloading all the movies. You would not find any difficulty while searching for Tamil Dubbed Movies, Hollywood Movies, Bollywood Movies, Movie4Me HD Movies and more. You might face some problem owing to pop up ads.
Since piracy website offers download links for all HD movies within hours of their release date. Owing to fast update, Movie4Me has become the most beloved Hindi Movie Downloading site of the people. The website shows you whether the movie is in HD Quality, DVDrip, Bluray, and other low resolutions. You can also check the movie’s quality by streaming online before put it on download mode.

Why you should avoid Movie4Me to download movies?

Well, the reason is quite obvious. As Movie4Me provides non-copyrighted content. Which means it shares movies link without the consent of the original owner of the content. Therefore, its domain is pirated or restricted in many countries along with India.
Moreover, if you access any of these types of website it may harm your device. As they use third-party ads that contain corrupted files or malware that can damage your device. Accordingly, I would suggest staying away from these websites to secure your device as well as yourself from non-copyrighted content.

What are the legal options to download movies?

Above we discussed that free of cost option can give us the opportunity to download movies without paying. But it also violates our government laws and also it is not safe for our devices as well. So what can be other options for downloading and enjoying the latest movies?
Well, there are such legal options that allow you to download movies and shows of different languages. Options such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hotstar, SonyLiv and other such legal sites that are purely safe to access. However, these are all subscription-based websites but few also provide free content. It is better to spend some money on entertainment rather than getting corrupted files or malware in your device.

Three legal options to stream and download movies

Netflix offers all the latest movies and shows of Hollywood and Bollywood. It has around a thousand tv shows and nearly 4000 movies to stream and download. Moreover, you do not have to pay at once, you will get a one-month free trial. Thereafter, you can continue watching while choosing one of the three streaming plans: basic, standard and premium. Each plan will offer you different features and limits to watch films and shows.
SonyLiv is also one amazing option to stream videos online for free and premium based movies and shows. It features more than a dozen TV channels in India. The interface is quite clean and simple on the website. The paid content is clearly modified as Premium to help you find the free content. Moreover, the content is divided into trending, drama, Hindi, South Indian, Romantic, Comedy, etc. SonyLiv offers its premium plans at Rs.99/month and Rs.499/year to unlock more exciting content.
Amazon Prime Video is a rival to Netflix and ranks second in the list of video streaming platforms in India. It is a much cheaper option compare to Netflix where the basic plan starts at the lowest cost of Rs 500. Whereas Amazon Prime Video offers a monthly subscription at only Rs.129. And a yearly subscription at the cost of Rs.999 along with free Amazon Prime deliveries on Amazon account.
Talking about movies and shows, well it holds a strong collection of Hindi and English Tv shows and movies. Along with awesome storage of Bollywood and other Indian language movies. Name it Marathi, Bengali, Telugu, Punjabi, Tamil or else. It also produces home-grown content too. Such as The Man from High Castle, One Mississippi, Fleabag and others. You can stream shows such as Suits, The Mindy Project, Young Sheldon, and many more.

Here’s why you shouldn’t visit Movie4Me Tamilrockers

If you are a citizen of India, you should know that we have a piracy law which restricts its citizen to use any illegal site for either for streaming or downloading purpose. Unfortunately, if you ever caught exploring any torrent sites including the above-mentioned site, the Indian government has authorized to punish you as per the piracy law.
There are multiple laws in India against online piracy to save them from paying the hefty price. In India, the Copyright Act, 1957 protects all type of music, songs, and videos, literary and artistic work. The Stop Online Piracy Act (STOP) is also one such act that restricts access to sites that host pirated content. The prime aim behind the piracy law is to stop or crackdown on copyright infringement.

Is it legal to download movies from Movie4Me or Movie Rulz?

No..Downloading or streaming movies from Movie4Me are completely illegal and if you still use the site, you might land in trouble. In fact, the MPAA or the Motion Picture Association of America said that such websites are considered a notorious website as they make all the latest movies available for Hd download. After Tamilrockers, Movie4Me is said to be the most notorious piracy website worldwide.
As per the reports, the website had once recorded over 98 million users monthly, which is very high that has been designated as an illegal website. The website is reportedly developed in Vietnam.

How does Movie4Me work?

Movie4Me is a free movie download website, which is being operated by a bunch of people from undisclosed locations. In order to make money or convert its millions of user into money, the owners of the website use different ads network. Notably, Movie4Me does not use Google AdSense ads becuase they promote piracy and that is against Google’s policy.

Is it safe to use Movie4Me?

No.. It is not safe for a longer period of time. Movie4Me is a torrent website, which has been banned by the Indian government. Using any torrent website or piracy website in India is a crime. Besides some legal issue, if you use any illegal and pirate website, you may get some unusual malware or even viruses in your PC or mobile. There is a possibility that you may accidentally click on a specific link while using this website, which may cause malware to enter your PC. You can also take it to some websites that are not protected.
Another thing is that Movie4Me can damage your mobile device or your computer. There is a possibility that you may experience that your device is running slow or even overheating when you use the Movie4Me website. The reason for this is that this website is using more ROM to be able to stream and get the videos you want to watch. And worst of all, the processor of your computer or mobile device may get damaged after a long time of using Movie4Me.

How to use Google Trick to Download Movie rulz

Downloading movies or web series from Movie rulz is quite dangerous as it not legal in India. But, there are Google tricks making it easier for users to download all the latest HD movies or web series in HD quality. You might be thinking that downloading Movies from the torrent website is far difficult but you are wrong. In this article, we have brought you some tips for making your work easier. Without having to go to these websites, we could easily perform this task by applying a little Google trick.
If you do not know, this Google trick is one of many that currently exist to activate a certain number of services. It is so easy, you could make a calculator, the translator, a unit converter and much more apparent. In order to make use of this other alternative, we must only use a small command line that is very easy to remember.

Final Words About Movie4Me

So, that’s it for this post about Movie4Me. Piracy has been a major problem for the movie industry and sites like Movie4Me are one of the biggest producers of pirated content. Many awareness campaigns have been started to make people aware of this problem. People are getting more aware day by day and are refraining themselves from watching pirated content. If you have any questions in your mind then feel free to leave a comment below we will try to answer them asap. Stay tuned for more such informative posts. Thanks for reading.

Related Search Intant

Disclaimer:

We The Live Mirror neither supports not promotes any piracy or torrent websites. We respect the Indian constitution and know how dangerous is downloading contents from pirated websites such as Movie4Me.com, Movie4Mems.com, Movie4Mepz.com, Movie4Memovies.com among others The content shown above is solely to provide our readers with the necessary information about the illegal a tivities. We do not intend to encourage our readers to use piracy or torrent websites. We urge our readers to stay away from such kinds of websites
submitted by kcluqhto to Movierulze [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 10:31 kcluqhto Rdxhd: Download Free Bollywood, Hollywood, Tollywood Movies

Movies are the source of entertainment for all ages of people. Everyone loves downloading and streaming movies. There are people who can afford to watch and then there are others who cannot. If you are one of the above-mentioned people then this article is for you. To know more about the interesting options like Movie4Me to stream and download your favorite pick. Just stay tuned till the end.
Due to the Coronavirus Pandemic entire world is in a state of panic, fear, uncertainty and chaos. Citizen of the world are currently practising self-isolation and trying to find a way to keep themselves entertained. Do you want to keep your boredom away? If yes, we have brought to you a website called ‘Movie4Me’ where you can watch and download all the latest movies in HD quality for free. There are millions of people are busy searching free movie download website on the web but only a few people know about Movie4Me. For the unversed, Movie4Me website is the second largest free movie download website after Tamilrockers.
If you love watching movies irrespective of language or genres, Rdxhd would never disappoint you. Yes, Movie4Me is regarded as the undisputed king of not only movies but also TV shows, web series and desi drama. According to reports, Movie4Me website has over 30 million monthly active users. The website is mostly visited by Indian then followed by the United States, United Arab Emirates, Australia, Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom.
To keep your lockdown entertained, we have decided to write an article about Movie4Me highlighting its benefits and drawbacks. Movie4Me website is nothing but a treasure of movies and TV shows and it is regarded as one of the most trusted and popular free movies download sites across the globe. If you are looking for free movie download sites then visiting Movie4Me.com is highly recommended. Unlike other movies downloading sites, Movie4Me has been functioning for years and that is the reason why it has millions of daily visitors.
We all know that Movie4Me.com is not the only website out there but we can say that there is no website that can be trusted except Movie4Me when it comes to downloading movies for free. Since Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared 21-days nationwide lockdown, the traffic of Movie4Me has exponentially surged and it is likely to be increased further in the near future. There are various reasons why the traffic of Movie4Me has skyrocketed and one of them is cinema halls and theatres are remain closed throughout the country and people are not allowed to venture out from the house since April 15, 2020.

About Movie4Me

Video Piracy has been on a rise in the last couple of years. When it comes to Video Piracy the one name that comes to everyone’s mind is Movie4Me. Movie4Me is an online movie-streaming website that is known for pirating the newly-released movies. Whether it is Hollywood, Bollywood, or Tollywood, you will find movies from all movie-industries on this website as soon as they release in the cinemas.
As I have said that not every one of us can afford to go to the cinema or get a subscription to options like Netflix and other such. Movie4Me is a type of website that allows users to download and stream movies for free. You can stream and download movies in HD. It has all types of movies be it Hollywood, Bollywood, and south – Indian movies. It also has Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, and dubbed movies in Hindi.
You may go through a particular genre if you want. Be it horror, action, thriller, documentary, sci-fi, crime, and comedy. Also, romantic, historic, family, 18+ movies, or any other type. Movie4Me provides every type of Hollywood, Tollywood, Bollywood, and Kollywood movies.
Though, there is no doubt that it is free and you get all those favorite movies free of cost. But Movie4Me is a piracy website that offers content illegally. And because of the copyright issues. It is banned in most countries along with India.
Movie4Me changes its domain name frequently to keep itself available. It operates websites through several different domains like Movie4Me.pc, Movie4Me. nz, Movie4Me. cm, Movie4Me. gd, Movie4Me. ac, Movie4Me. in, Movie4Me. com, Movie4Me. to, Movie4Me. tv, Movie4Me. hp, Movie4Me. Co.
On Movie4Me you can find movies from various genres, release years, and quality. All the movies are sorted alphabetically for easy searching. A search bar is also provided to search for movies by their name. After finding the movie that you want to watch you can find its download links. You can also stream the movie online without having to download it. You can add subtitles, change quality, change the speed of the movie using the features provided in the players. Torrent download links are also provided. On the movie’s page, you can find the details about the movie like description, genre, star cast, country, release year, etc.
What is Movie4Me? Before delving into deeper about Movie4Me.com, let us tell you that it is an illegal website and if you are a citizen of India and the US and explore Movie4Me, you are likely to be punished. Yes, it is one of the thousands of websites, which has been banned by the US and India.
You must be wondering why it got banned? The reason is quite simple, websites like Movie4Me leak all the movies released in the theatres or OTT platforms and owing to that producer of the film or series have to suffer a huge loss. Due to websites like Movie4Me.com, the box office collection of not only Bollywood but Tollywood or Hollywood movies are badly affected.
There have been everlasting efforts made to curb piracy in India but looks like their efforts seem to have gone wasted. Yes, despite action taken against Movie4Me or other illegal sites, they still continue to leak all the movies with impunity. Movie4Me is one of the most notorious sites to offer copyrighted contents mainly movies, TV shows and web series before or hours after their release dates. That is the reason why still millions of people use it to download and watch movies for free.
Movie4Me does not leave any opportunity to lure citizens making them download copyrighted contents by offering them each and every movie they come across with. Talking about its homepage, irrespective of language or genres, it has all the latest movies featured for illegal download. Besides providing a download link, Movie4Me.com provides a brief synopsis about the film and its run time. Movie4Me is surely a site, where you get all the latest HD movies within hours of their release. Unlike another website, it uploads Scam or theatre print on the release date of the film but a few days later it replaces it with the HD version.

How To Download The Movie4Me App?

If you are not comfortable in downloading a movie from the desktop using Movie4Me App, then we have yet another option to do so. Besides Movie4Me.com website, the developers of the site had released its app, which is no longer available on Google Play Store. If you want to download Movie4Me app, you will have to take supports of some third-party sites. The app has been designed keeping in mind user experience and it has a very user-friendly structure.
Movie4Me or Movie Rulz is a free movie downloading an app that serves millions of people. When it comes to its designing part, it is user-friendly. It is beautifully segregated in all the categories. Movie4Me is said to be undisputed kings when it comes to streaming or downloading Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Hindi and English movies, web series, TV shows, desi drama or documentaries.
According to reports, Movie4Me app is available for Android and iOS, Smart TV and PC, so you can enjoy it on the favourite medium. It is to be noted that you can not download Movie rulz App from an official source such as Google Play Store before it is not legal. So you can download the application by using third-party sources on your phones such as Hindi Links 4u.
While using this app make sure to use Wifi because it consumes a lot of internet data. Movie4Me is a free movie app to watch the contents without spending data and so that you do not have those annoying cuts that they happen when the connection speed is not very good.

Movie4Me App Features

Before downloading Movie4Me Android app, it is quite important to know about its features. There is no doubt about some of its unique features but we would urge you to use some legal options such as Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video and MX Player. We have listed down some of its features below, which you can have a look.
Looking for apps to download movies or series online, you have come to the right location. If you would have thought that downloading movies from the mobile application was impossible, you were wrong. We have brought you Movie4Me app, which has thousands of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Hindi and English HD movies, which you can download for free.
If you really want to download all the latest movies, you can visit Movie4Me.com website at your own risk or download Movie4Me apk. Movie4Me is surely one of the best applications to watch Hindi movies and download Tamil movies for free. Besides movies or TV shows, Movie rulz app has an option allowing users to watch Live TV. It definitely has a wide catalogue of content in addition, divided into categories. It has personalization themes, views and most importantly, everything is in Latin.

How To Download Movies from Movie4Me Website?

As we have told you at the beginning that it is a piracy website and using it for streaming or download purpose in India is a crime. However, if you still want to access the site and download movies, then you need to follow below steps to do so.

Movie4Me New Links 2020

Similar to other torrent websites such as Tamilrockers, Movie4Me keeps changing its domain in order to not to get caught by the cybercrime. Changing the domain frequently reduces the chances of being caught by the cybersecurity. Movie4Me is one of the most notorious piracy websites, which lets users stream or download all the latest Tamil movies, English Dubbed Hindi, Malayalam Movies, Hindi Movies, Hollywood Movies, Hollywood Dual Audio Movies, Web Series, TV shows for free.
The website has millions of monthly visitors. The main domain of Movie4Me had once blocked by the Indian government Anti piracy cell with the help of ISP internet service provider of India and Search Engine Portal functioning in India.

Best Movie4Me Alternatives: Download Latest HD Movies From Movie rulz 2020

If you did not find Movie4Me worthy to visit, you must have knowledge about the website which are better than Movie4Meor Movie Rulz. Keeping in mind user’s choice, we have brought you some of the best alternatives of Movie4Me, which will surely help you. The following Movie4Me alternatives have plenty of contents including Movies, TV shows, TV series, web series, desi drama or documentaries that can be downloaded and streamed online for free. The website we have mentioned below would not irritate you with their pop up ads.
As per the analysis by Tubular Insights which stated that in 2020 comes around, 80% of the world’s internet traffic will be affected by online video streaming. Due to the increase in traffic then you are looking for Movie4Me alternative. Here are the lists. For the better user experience, we have rechecked all the below links which is working fine. Movie4Me is known for providing all the latest Movies, TV Shows, and videos but people who regularly visit the torrent website might have known that there are several domains of Movie4Me have been blocked. If the scenario is like that, so, how can we depend on a single domain Movie4Me.com?
Looking at the importance of free movies downloading sites, we have shortlisted some of the best alternatives to Movie rulz.

What are the best legal alternatives for Movie rulz?

There are several alternatives out there such as Tamilrockers, Tamilgun, Tamilyogi, Khatrimaza, Filmyhit, Movie4Me and others but all of them are illegal websites. Keeping in mind the dangers of illegal websites, we have enlisted some of the best and legal alternatives of Movie4Me.
Nowadays, people are addicted to watch and download movies online and they can’t wait so many days for movies to come on TV or legal platforms. There are some legal websites or OTT platforms such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hotstar, MX Players and other offering all new movies and TV series within days of their official release.

What are the best Movie4Me Alternatives?

Movie4Me is surely one of the most popular and visited piracy sites across the world. However, there have been people who did not like the site and might be busy searching for its alternatives. If you are one of those people, then do no worry, we have brought to you a list of best and free Movie4Me alternatives. Here are the best Movie4Me.com alternatives in 2020:

Movie4Me Movies Categories

Movie4Me leaks movies ranging from Bollywood, Hollywood, Tollywood and Pakistani movies. When you visit 4Movie4Me.com, you will see various categories that we have mentioned below. You can check out the categories of movies which Movie4Me leaks on its website:

What are the best legal alternatives to Movie4Me.com?

After introducing to some of the best and illegal alternatives, we have brought to you a list of free and legal Movie4Me alternatives. The above-mentioned websites are great but they are illegal and could be banned at any time. Keeping in mind the dangers of illegal websites, we have enlisted some of the best and legal alternatives to Movie4Me. Take a look at the list of legal Movie4Me alternatives:

Movie4Me Website: Movie Rulz Latest HD Movies Download Site

If you are looking for free movie download sites, you have come to the right place. We have got you covered everything about Movie4Me website, Movie Rulz or Movie4Me app, which are considered the best platform to download movies, TV shows, Series and drama in HD quality. Watching movies online or web series for free has always been a hot topic and people are tired of visiting fake movie downloading sites. Making your work easier, we have come up with the best and free movie downloading site and it is Movie Rulz, Movie4Me ms or Movie4Me Telugu.
Movie4Me.com or Movie4Mez website used to provide Tamil movies to download but now they have extended their services and now offering Bollywood, Kollywood, Mollywood or Hollywood movies in all the formate (360p, 420p, 720p or 1080p). Apart from Movie4Me website, you can also download Tamil movies and Telugu movies from Movie Rulz Android app. Ever since Movie4Me was established, the website has been offering HD movies for free.
As per the report, Movie4Me app was disappeared for some period of time due to its legality issue. Before delving into more about Movie4Me, let us tell you that, this is an illegal or kind of torrent website, which the Indian Government has banned. Tamil Movies Download Sites
As we all know that nothing comes for free on the internet, Movie4Me might steal your personal information while using the website. As a respectful organisation, we would not suggest or recommend using Movie4Me website for streaming or downloading purpose. You must be feeling happy to get to know about free movie downloading site, Movierlz but illegal is illegal. If you ever caught using the torrent website, Indian Government has authorized to punish you as per the Anti piracy act.

Is it safe to watch movies on Movie4Me?

No, watching, download, sharing, or uploading of Pirated Content is punishable by the law. Although, different countries have different laws regarding Piracy. In countries like India and USA, Piracy is illegal. The person found guilty will be warned, or in some cases, legal actions can also be taken against him/her. But the laws are not really strict for people watching/downloading the movies. It’s rare to see anyone getting arrested for downloading/streaming pirated movies online. Most of the arrests have been made for uploading the pirated content online.
There are other things to worry about while watching movies on sites like Movie4Me. Sites like fmovies, 0123movies, Movie4Me earn money by placing ads on their websites. These ads, popups, and redirects can take you to sites containing malicious software, malware, adware, and various kinds of viruses. So, it is highly recommended to have a good Antivirus installed on your system before watching movies on such sites. I will advise you to install an Ad-Blocker and a VPN too to be on the safer side.

Is Movie4Me Banned In India?

Movie4Me.com website is an illegal or kind of torrent site and visiting any illegal websites in India might land you in trouble. The Indian government had banned thousands of websites and Movie4Me.com Tamilrockers was one of them.

Why Movie4Me has become so popular?

You might have visited dozens of free movies download websites, but have you ever visit Movie4Me.com? It might be an illegal site but it never breaks the trust of millions of users. The reason why it became quite popular among the masses is it provides all the movies in multiple formats ranging from 360p, 420p, 780p and 1080p.
As per space, you have left in your device, you can opt to download the format. The website showcases how much size a particular format will take to get it downloaded. If you are downloading a movie from Movie4Me.com, opting for 420p or 300 MB size option will be highly recommended. If you are downloading any Tollywood or Hollywood movies, the size will provide you dual audio quality and subtitle making it easier for non-native language to watch the film with the flow. Doesn’t these options are worth to visit it on repeat?
As soon as English or Hollywood movies release in India, Movie4Me does not take much time to upload movies Hindi version or Dubbed version on its websites since its millions of users do not know the English language. That could be the reason behind its soaring popularity among Indians. Movie4Me website is designed very well and has options to navigate each and every category of downloading all the movies. You would not find any difficulty while searching for Tamil Dubbed Movies, Hollywood Movies, Bollywood Movies, Movie4Me HD Movies and more. You might face some problem owing to pop up ads.
Since piracy website offers download links for all HD movies within hours of their release date. Owing to fast update, Movie4Me has become the most beloved Hindi Movie Downloading site of the people. The website shows you whether the movie is in HD Quality, DVDrip, Bluray, and other low resolutions. You can also check the movie’s quality by streaming online before put it on download mode.

Why you should avoid Movie4Me to download movies?

Well, the reason is quite obvious. As Movie4Me provides non-copyrighted content. Which means it shares movies link without the consent of the original owner of the content. Therefore, its domain is pirated or restricted in many countries along with India.
Moreover, if you access any of these types of website it may harm your device. As they use third-party ads that contain corrupted files or malware that can damage your device. Accordingly, I would suggest staying away from these websites to secure your device as well as yourself from non-copyrighted content.

What are the legal options to download movies?

Above we discussed that free of cost option can give us the opportunity to download movies without paying. But it also violates our government laws and also it is not safe for our devices as well. So what can be other options for downloading and enjoying the latest movies?
Well, there are such legal options that allow you to download movies and shows of different languages. Options such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hotstar, SonyLiv and other such legal sites that are purely safe to access. However, these are all subscription-based websites but few also provide free content. It is better to spend some money on entertainment rather than getting corrupted files or malware in your device.

Three legal options to stream and download movies

Netflix offers all the latest movies and shows of Hollywood and Bollywood. It has around a thousand tv shows and nearly 4000 movies to stream and download. Moreover, you do not have to pay at once, you will get a one-month free trial. Thereafter, you can continue watching while choosing one of the three streaming plans: basic, standard and premium. Each plan will offer you different features and limits to watch films and shows.
SonyLiv is also one amazing option to stream videos online for free and premium based movies and shows. It features more than a dozen TV channels in India. The interface is quite clean and simple on the website. The paid content is clearly modified as Premium to help you find the free content. Moreover, the content is divided into trending, drama, Hindi, South Indian, Romantic, Comedy, etc. SonyLiv offers its premium plans at Rs.99/month and Rs.499/year to unlock more exciting content.
Amazon Prime Video is a rival to Netflix and ranks second in the list of video streaming platforms in India. It is a much cheaper option compare to Netflix where the basic plan starts at the lowest cost of Rs 500. Whereas Amazon Prime Video offers a monthly subscription at only Rs.129. And a yearly subscription at the cost of Rs.999 along with free Amazon Prime deliveries on Amazon account.
Talking about movies and shows, well it holds a strong collection of Hindi and English Tv shows and movies. Along with awesome storage of Bollywood and other Indian language movies. Name it Marathi, Bengali, Telugu, Punjabi, Tamil or else. It also produces home-grown content too. Such as The Man from High Castle, One Mississippi, Fleabag and others. You can stream shows such as Suits, The Mindy Project, Young Sheldon, and many more.

Here’s why you shouldn’t visit Movie4Me Tamilrockers

If you are a citizen of India, you should know that we have a piracy law which restricts its citizen to use any illegal site for either for streaming or downloading purpose. Unfortunately, if you ever caught exploring any torrent sites including the above-mentioned site, the Indian government has authorized to punish you as per the piracy law.
There are multiple laws in India against online piracy to save them from paying the hefty price. In India, the Copyright Act, 1957 protects all type of music, songs, and videos, literary and artistic work. The Stop Online Piracy Act (STOP) is also one such act that restricts access to sites that host pirated content. The prime aim behind the piracy law is to stop or crackdown on copyright infringement.

Is it legal to download movies from Movie4Me or Movie Rulz?

No..Downloading or streaming movies from Movie4Me are completely illegal and if you still use the site, you might land in trouble. In fact, the MPAA or the Motion Picture Association of America said that such websites are considered a notorious website as they make all the latest movies available for Hd download. After Tamilrockers, Movie4Me is said to be the most notorious piracy website worldwide.
As per the reports, the website had once recorded over 98 million users monthly, which is very high that has been designated as an illegal website. The website is reportedly developed in Vietnam.

How does Movie4Me work?

Movie4Me is a free movie download website, which is being operated by a bunch of people from undisclosed locations. In order to make money or convert its millions of user into money, the owners of the website use different ads network. Notably, Movie4Me does not use Google AdSense ads becuase they promote piracy and that is against Google’s policy.

Is it safe to use Movie4Me?

No.. It is not safe for a longer period of time. Movie4Me is a torrent website, which has been banned by the Indian government. Using any torrent website or piracy website in India is a crime. Besides some legal issue, if you use any illegal and pirate website, you may get some unusual malware or even viruses in your PC or mobile. There is a possibility that you may accidentally click on a specific link while using this website, which may cause malware to enter your PC. You can also take it to some websites that are not protected.
Another thing is that Movie4Me can damage your mobile device or your computer. There is a possibility that you may experience that your device is running slow or even overheating when you use the Movie4Me website. The reason for this is that this website is using more ROM to be able to stream and get the videos you want to watch. And worst of all, the processor of your computer or mobile device may get damaged after a long time of using Movie4Me.

How to use Google Trick to Download Movie rulz

Downloading movies or web series from Movie rulz is quite dangerous as it not legal in India. But, there are Google tricks making it easier for users to download all the latest HD movies or web series in HD quality. You might be thinking that downloading Movies from the torrent website is far difficult but you are wrong. In this article, we have brought you some tips for making your work easier. Without having to go to these websites, we could easily perform this task by applying a little Google trick.
If you do not know, this Google trick is one of many that currently exist to activate a certain number of services. It is so easy, you could make a calculator, the translator, a unit converter and much more apparent. In order to make use of this other alternative, we must only use a small command line that is very easy to remember.

Final Words About Movie4Me

So, that’s it for this post about Movie4Me. Piracy has been a major problem for the movie industry and sites like Movie4Me are one of the biggest producers of pirated content. Many awareness campaigns have been started to make people aware of this problem. People are getting more aware day by day and are refraining themselves from watching pirated content. If you have any questions in your mind then feel free to leave a comment below we will try to answer them asap. Stay tuned for more such informative posts. Thanks for reading.

Related Search Intant

Disclaimer:

We The Live Mirror neither supports not promotes any piracy or torrent websites. We respect the Indian constitution and know how dangerous is downloading contents from pirated websites such as Movie4Me.com, Movie4Mems.com, Movie4Mepz.com, Movie4Memovies.com among others The content shown above is solely to provide our readers with the necessary information about the illegal a tivities. We do not intend to encourage our readers to use piracy or torrent websites. We urge our readers to stay away from such kinds of websites
submitted by kcluqhto to rdxhde [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 09:29 3dChef One M.A.D year. (First story)

 Yet another start of yet another school day. Every single year I feel the same exact way. I wish I could just be done with it. No friends, bad grades, new teachers, same worthless students. Sometimes im surprised I havent dropped out. Then I end up reminding myself why im staying in school. If I dropped out, I wouldnt get to see her anymore. Amy is the only reason im still going. The only reason im still part of this miserable world. I know that one day me and her will be together, even if she is dating that douchebag, Kenny. I just know it. After all, its only sophomore year. I can always get close to her. It shouldnt be too hard. “Mark! Mark, Where are you going? I need to talk to you!” My best friend, Drake, said. “What is it? What do you need?” “Youve quit all youre sport this year! Im not going to be letting you sit at home all day everyday doing nothing. Come on! Im taking you to sign up to choir and theatre with me!” “Uugh. What if i WANT to sit at home all day every day? Huh?” “I dont care, come on!” 
And that was it. That was the beginning to what i would soon find out to be the best thing thats happened to me. Its amazing how such short conversations can make such huge impacts. Drake always knew how to cheer me up. Up until this summer, I was stuck at home. My mother wouldnt let me do anything. Then all of the sudden, she loosened up out of no where. I spent more time with friends this summer than at home. Drake was one of the only friends I hung out with, but that still counts as being social. He always knew what was best for me and what I needed. He was helping me find a job and he drove me literally everywhere. He was one of the popular kids, but he still took me in as his dedicated introvert freshman year. We were in the same latin and history classes.
 “Youre going to have more fun in choir that you have your entire highschool career. I know it.” And he was right. Since the first day, choir has been the most fun class ive taken. After we finished signing up for choir, we went straight to the theatre arts teacher “And what will you be able to do for our technical crew, Mark?” She had said. “Oh, I can take him and train him on sound engineering. I know everything about it and I think he wiuld be really good with it” “If you insist drake, Here mark, just fill out this form and youll be good to go!” And just like that, I was a part of the tech crew at my school. This had been the very first after school activity ive ever done, and its definitely been the most fun one. Our first tech meet was in a week and I was excited to introduce myself. When that time came, i got the biggest surprise of my life. Amy and Drake are best friends. I really feel like this year was going to be the best year of my life. 
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2020.09.20 06:04 kcluqhto Kuttymovies: Download Free Bollywood, Hollywood, Tollywood Movies

Movies are the source of entertainment for all ages of people. Everyone loves downloading and streaming movies. There are people who can afford to watch and then there are others who cannot. If you are one of the above-mentioned people then this article is for you. To know more about the interesting options like Movie4Me to stream and download your favorite pick. Just stay tuned till the end.
Due to the Coronavirus Pandemic entire world is in a state of panic, fear, uncertainty and chaos. Citizen of the world are currently practising self-isolation and trying to find a way to keep themselves entertained. Do you want to keep your boredom away? If yes, we have brought to you a website called ‘Movie4Me’ where you can watch and download all the latest movies in HD quality for free. There are millions of people are busy searching free movie download website on the web but only a few people know about Movie4Me. For the unversed, Movie4Me website is the second largest free movie download website after Tamilrockers.
If you love watching movies irrespective of language or genres, kuttymovies would never disappoint you. Yes, Movie4Me is regarded as the undisputed king of not only movies but also TV shows, web series and desi drama. According to reports, Movie4Me website has over 30 million monthly active users. The website is mostly visited by Indian then followed by the United States, United Arab Emirates, Australia, Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom.
To keep your lockdown entertained, we have decided to write an article about Movie4Me highlighting its benefits and drawbacks. Movie4Me website is nothing but a treasure of movies and TV shows and it is regarded as one of the most trusted and popular free movies download sites across the globe. If you are looking for free movie download sites then visiting Movie4Me.com is highly recommended. Unlike other movies downloading sites, Movie4Me has been functioning for years and that is the reason why it has millions of daily visitors.
We all know that Movie4Me.com is not the only website out there but we can say that there is no website that can be trusted except Movie4Me when it comes to downloading movies for free. Since Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared 21-days nationwide lockdown, the traffic of Movie4Me has exponentially surged and it is likely to be increased further in the near future. There are various reasons why the traffic of Movie4Me has skyrocketed and one of them is cinema halls and theatres are remain closed throughout the country and people are not allowed to venture out from the house since April 15, 2020.

About Movie4Me

Video Piracy has been on a rise in the last couple of years. When it comes to Video Piracy the one name that comes to everyone’s mind is Movie4Me. Movie4Me is an online movie-streaming website that is known for pirating the newly-released movies. Whether it is Hollywood, Bollywood, or Tollywood, you will find movies from all movie-industries on this website as soon as they release in the cinemas.
As I have said that not every one of us can afford to go to the cinema or get a subscription to options like Netflix and other such. Movie4Me is a type of website that allows users to download and stream movies for free. You can stream and download movies in HD. It has all types of movies be it Hollywood, Bollywood, and south – Indian movies. It also has Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, and dubbed movies in Hindi.
You may go through a particular genre if you want. Be it horror, action, thriller, documentary, sci-fi, crime, and comedy. Also, romantic, historic, family, 18+ movies, or any other type. Movie4Me provides every type of Hollywood, Tollywood, Bollywood, and Kollywood movies.
Though, there is no doubt that it is free and you get all those favorite movies free of cost. But Movie4Me is a piracy website that offers content illegally. And because of the copyright issues. It is banned in most countries along with India.
Movie4Me changes its domain name frequently to keep itself available. It operates websites through several different domains like Movie4Me.pc, Movie4Me. nz, Movie4Me. cm, Movie4Me. gd, Movie4Me. ac, Movie4Me. in, Movie4Me. com, Movie4Me. to, Movie4Me. tv, Movie4Me. hp, Movie4Me. Co.
On Movie4Me you can find movies from various genres, release years, and quality. All the movies are sorted alphabetically for easy searching. A search bar is also provided to search for movies by their name. After finding the movie that you want to watch you can find its download links. You can also stream the movie online without having to download it. You can add subtitles, change quality, change the speed of the movie using the features provided in the players. Torrent download links are also provided. On the movie’s page, you can find the details about the movie like description, genre, star cast, country, release year, etc.
What is Movie4Me? Before delving into deeper about Movie4Me.com, let us tell you that it is an illegal website and if you are a citizen of India and the US and explore Movie4Me, you are likely to be punished. Yes, it is one of the thousands of websites, which has been banned by the US and India.
You must be wondering why it got banned? The reason is quite simple, websites like Movie4Me leak all the movies released in the theatres or OTT platforms and owing to that producer of the film or series have to suffer a huge loss. Due to websites like Movie4Me.com, the box office collection of not only Bollywood but Tollywood or Hollywood movies are badly affected.
There have been everlasting efforts made to curb piracy in India but looks like their efforts seem to have gone wasted. Yes, despite action taken against Movie4Me or other illegal sites, they still continue to leak all the movies with impunity. Movie4Me is one of the most notorious sites to offer copyrighted contents mainly movies, TV shows and web series before or hours after their release dates. That is the reason why still millions of people use it to download and watch movies for free.
Movie4Me does not leave any opportunity to lure citizens making them download copyrighted contents by offering them each and every movie they come across with. Talking about its homepage, irrespective of language or genres, it has all the latest movies featured for illegal download. Besides providing a download link, Movie4Me.com provides a brief synopsis about the film and its run time. Movie4Me is surely a site, where you get all the latest HD movies within hours of their release. Unlike another website, it uploads Scam or theatre print on the release date of the film but a few days later it replaces it with the HD version.

How To Download The Movie4Me App?

If you are not comfortable in downloading a movie from the desktop using Movie4Me App, then we have yet another option to do so. Besides Movie4Me.com website, the developers of the site had released its app, which is no longer available on Google Play Store. If you want to download Movie4Me app, you will have to take supports of some third-party sites. The app has been designed keeping in mind user experience and it has a very user-friendly structure.
Movie4Me or Movie Rulz is a free movie downloading an app that serves millions of people. When it comes to its designing part, it is user-friendly. It is beautifully segregated in all the categories. Movie4Me is said to be undisputed kings when it comes to streaming or downloading Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Hindi and English movies, web series, TV shows, desi drama or documentaries.
According to reports, Movie4Me app is available for Android and iOS, Smart TV and PC, so you can enjoy it on the favourite medium. It is to be noted that you can not download Movie rulz App from an official source such as Google Play Store before it is not legal. So you can download the application by using third-party sources on your phones such as Hindi Links 4u.
While using this app make sure to use Wifi because it consumes a lot of internet data. Movie4Me is a free movie app to watch the contents without spending data and so that you do not have those annoying cuts that they happen when the connection speed is not very good.

Movie4Me App Features

Before downloading Movie4Me Android app, it is quite important to know about its features. There is no doubt about some of its unique features but we would urge you to use some legal options such as Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video and MX Player. We have listed down some of its features below, which you can have a look.
Looking for apps to download movies or series online, you have come to the right location. If you would have thought that downloading movies from the mobile application was impossible, you were wrong. We have brought you Movie4Me app, which has thousands of Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Hindi and English HD movies, which you can download for free.
If you really want to download all the latest movies, you can visit Movie4Me.com website at your own risk or download Movie4Me apk. Movie4Me is surely one of the best applications to watch Hindi movies and download Tamil movies for free. Besides movies or TV shows, Movie rulz app has an option allowing users to watch Live TV. It definitely has a wide catalogue of content in addition, divided into categories. It has personalization themes, views and most importantly, everything is in Latin.

How To Download Movies from Movie4Me Website?

As we have told you at the beginning that it is a piracy website and using it for streaming or download purpose in India is a crime. However, if you still want to access the site and download movies, then you need to follow below steps to do so.

Movie4Me New Links 2020

Similar to other torrent websites such as Tamilrockers, Movie4Me keeps changing its domain in order to not to get caught by the cybercrime. Changing the domain frequently reduces the chances of being caught by the cybersecurity. Movie4Me is one of the most notorious piracy websites, which lets users stream or download all the latest Tamil movies, English Dubbed Hindi, Malayalam Movies, Hindi Movies, Hollywood Movies, Hollywood Dual Audio Movies, Web Series, TV shows for free.
The website has millions of monthly visitors. The main domain of Movie4Me had once blocked by the Indian government Anti piracy cell with the help of ISP internet service provider of India and Search Engine Portal functioning in India.

Best Movie4Me Alternatives: Download Latest HD Movies From Movie rulz 2020

If you did not find Movie4Me worthy to visit, you must have knowledge about the website which are better than Movie4Meor Movie Rulz. Keeping in mind user’s choice, we have brought you some of the best alternatives of Movie4Me, which will surely help you. The following Movie4Me alternatives have plenty of contents including Movies, TV shows, TV series, web series, desi drama or documentaries that can be downloaded and streamed online for free. The website we have mentioned below would not irritate you with their pop up ads.
As per the analysis by Tubular Insights which stated that in 2020 comes around, 80% of the world’s internet traffic will be affected by online video streaming. Due to the increase in traffic then you are looking for Movie4Me alternative. Here are the lists. For the better user experience, we have rechecked all the below links which is working fine. Movie4Me is known for providing all the latest Movies, TV Shows, and videos but people who regularly visit the torrent website might have known that there are several domains of Movie4Me have been blocked. If the scenario is like that, so, how can we depend on a single domain Movie4Me.com?
Looking at the importance of free movies downloading sites, we have shortlisted some of the best alternatives to Movie rulz.

What are the best legal alternatives for Movie rulz?

There are several alternatives out there such as Tamilrockers, Tamilgun, Tamilyogi, Khatrimaza, Filmyhit, Movie4Me and others but all of them are illegal websites. Keeping in mind the dangers of illegal websites, we have enlisted some of the best and legal alternatives of Movie4Me.
Nowadays, people are addicted to watch and download movies online and they can’t wait so many days for movies to come on TV or legal platforms. There are some legal websites or OTT platforms such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hotstar, MX Players and other offering all new movies and TV series within days of their official release.

What are the best Movie4Me Alternatives?

Movie4Me is surely one of the most popular and visited piracy sites across the world. However, there have been people who did not like the site and might be busy searching for its alternatives. If you are one of those people, then do no worry, we have brought to you a list of best and free Movie4Me alternatives. Here are the best Movie4Me.com alternatives in 2020:

Movie4Me Movies Categories

Movie4Me leaks movies ranging from Bollywood, Hollywood, Tollywood and Pakistani movies. When you visit 4Movie4Me.com, you will see various categories that we have mentioned below. You can check out the categories of movies which Movie4Me leaks on its website:

What are the best legal alternatives to Movie4Me.com?

After introducing to some of the best and illegal alternatives, we have brought to you a list of free and legal Movie4Me alternatives. The above-mentioned websites are great but they are illegal and could be banned at any time. Keeping in mind the dangers of illegal websites, we have enlisted some of the best and legal alternatives to Movie4Me. Take a look at the list of legal Movie4Me alternatives:

Movie4Me Website: Movie Rulz Latest HD Movies Download Site

If you are looking for free movie download sites, you have come to the right place. We have got you covered everything about Movie4Me website, Movie Rulz or Movie4Me app, which are considered the best platform to download movies, TV shows, Series and drama in HD quality. Watching movies online or web series for free has always been a hot topic and people are tired of visiting fake movie downloading sites. Making your work easier, we have come up with the best and free movie downloading site and it is Movie Rulz, Movie4Me ms or Movie4Me Telugu.
Movie4Me.com or Movie4Mez website used to provide Tamil movies to download but now they have extended their services and now offering Bollywood, Kollywood, Mollywood or Hollywood movies in all the formate (360p, 420p, 720p or 1080p). Apart from Movie4Me website, you can also download Tamil movies and Telugu movies from Movie Rulz Android app. Ever since Movie4Me was established, the website has been offering HD movies for free.
As per the report, Movie4Me app was disappeared for some period of time due to its legality issue. Before delving into more about Movie4Me, let us tell you that, this is an illegal or kind of torrent website, which the Indian Government has banned. Tamil Movies Download Sites
As we all know that nothing comes for free on the internet, Movie4Me might steal your personal information while using the website. As a respectful organisation, we would not suggest or recommend using Movie4Me website for streaming or downloading purpose. You must be feeling happy to get to know about free movie downloading site, Movierlz but illegal is illegal. If you ever caught using the torrent website, Indian Government has authorized to punish you as per the Anti piracy act.

Is it safe to watch movies on Movie4Me?

No, watching, download, sharing, or uploading of Pirated Content is punishable by the law. Although, different countries have different laws regarding Piracy. In countries like India and USA, Piracy is illegal. The person found guilty will be warned, or in some cases, legal actions can also be taken against him/her. But the laws are not really strict for people watching/downloading the movies. It’s rare to see anyone getting arrested for downloading/streaming pirated movies online. Most of the arrests have been made for uploading the pirated content online.
There are other things to worry about while watching movies on sites like Movie4Me. Sites like fmovies, 0123movies, Movie4Me earn money by placing ads on their websites. These ads, popups, and redirects can take you to sites containing malicious software, malware, adware, and various kinds of viruses. So, it is highly recommended to have a good Antivirus installed on your system before watching movies on such sites. I will advise you to install an Ad-Blocker and a VPN too to be on the safer side.

Is Movie4Me Banned In India?

Movie4Me.com website is an illegal or kind of torrent site and visiting any illegal websites in India might land you in trouble. The Indian government had banned thousands of websites and Movie4Me.com Tamilrockers was one of them.

Why Movie4Me has become so popular?

You might have visited dozens of free movies download websites, but have you ever visit Movie4Me.com? It might be an illegal site but it never breaks the trust of millions of users. The reason why it became quite popular among the masses is it provides all the movies in multiple formats ranging from 360p, 420p, 780p and 1080p.
As per space, you have left in your device, you can opt to download the format. The website showcases how much size a particular format will take to get it downloaded. If you are downloading a movie from Movie4Me.com, opting for 420p or 300 MB size option will be highly recommended. If you are downloading any Tollywood or Hollywood movies, the size will provide you dual audio quality and subtitle making it easier for non-native language to watch the film with the flow. Doesn’t these options are worth to visit it on repeat?
As soon as English or Hollywood movies release in India, Movie4Me does not take much time to upload movies Hindi version or Dubbed version on its websites since its millions of users do not know the English language. That could be the reason behind its soaring popularity among Indians. Movie4Me website is designed very well and has options to navigate each and every category of downloading all the movies. You would not find any difficulty while searching for Tamil Dubbed Movies, Hollywood Movies, Bollywood Movies, Movie4Me HD Movies and more. You might face some problem owing to pop up ads.
Since piracy website offers download links for all HD movies within hours of their release date. Owing to fast update, Movie4Me has become the most beloved Hindi Movie Downloading site of the people. The website shows you whether the movie is in HD Quality, DVDrip, Bluray, and other low resolutions. You can also check the movie’s quality by streaming online before put it on download mode.

Why you should avoid Movie4Me to download movies?

Well, the reason is quite obvious. As Movie4Me provides non-copyrighted content. Which means it shares movies link without the consent of the original owner of the content. Therefore, its domain is pirated or restricted in many countries along with India.
Moreover, if you access any of these types of website it may harm your device. As they use third-party ads that contain corrupted files or malware that can damage your device. Accordingly, I would suggest staying away from these websites to secure your device as well as yourself from non-copyrighted content.

What are the legal options to download movies?

Above we discussed that free of cost option can give us the opportunity to download movies without paying. But it also violates our government laws and also it is not safe for our devices as well. So what can be other options for downloading and enjoying the latest movies?
Well, there are such legal options that allow you to download movies and shows of different languages. Options such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hotstar, SonyLiv and other such legal sites that are purely safe to access. However, these are all subscription-based websites but few also provide free content. It is better to spend some money on entertainment rather than getting corrupted files or malware in your device.

Three legal options to stream and download movies

Netflix offers all the latest movies and shows of Hollywood and Bollywood. It has around a thousand tv shows and nearly 4000 movies to stream and download. Moreover, you do not have to pay at once, you will get a one-month free trial. Thereafter, you can continue watching while choosing one of the three streaming plans: basic, standard and premium. Each plan will offer you different features and limits to watch films and shows.
SonyLiv is also one amazing option to stream videos online for free and premium based movies and shows. It features more than a dozen TV channels in India. The interface is quite clean and simple on the website. The paid content is clearly modified as Premium to help you find the free content. Moreover, the content is divided into trending, drama, Hindi, South Indian, Romantic, Comedy, etc. SonyLiv offers its premium plans at Rs.99/month and Rs.499/year to unlock more exciting content.
Amazon Prime Video is a rival to Netflix and ranks second in the list of video streaming platforms in India. It is a much cheaper option compare to Netflix where the basic plan starts at the lowest cost of Rs 500. Whereas Amazon Prime Video offers a monthly subscription at only Rs.129. And a yearly subscription at the cost of Rs.999 along with free Amazon Prime deliveries on Amazon account.
Talking about movies and shows, well it holds a strong collection of Hindi and English Tv shows and movies. Along with awesome storage of Bollywood and other Indian language movies. Name it Marathi, Bengali, Telugu, Punjabi, Tamil or else. It also produces home-grown content too. Such as The Man from High Castle, One Mississippi, Fleabag and others. You can stream shows such as Suits, The Mindy Project, Young Sheldon, and many more.

Here’s why you shouldn’t visit Movie4Me Tamilrockers

If you are a citizen of India, you should know that we have a piracy law which restricts its citizen to use any illegal site for either for streaming or downloading purpose. Unfortunately, if you ever caught exploring any torrent sites including the above-mentioned site, the Indian government has authorized to punish you as per the piracy law.
There are multiple laws in India against online piracy to save them from paying the hefty price. In India, the Copyright Act, 1957 protects all type of music, songs, and videos, literary and artistic work. The Stop Online Piracy Act (STOP) is also one such act that restricts access to sites that host pirated content. The prime aim behind the piracy law is to stop or crackdown on copyright infringement.

Is it legal to download movies from Movie4Me or Movie Rulz?

No..Downloading or streaming movies from Movie4Me are completely illegal and if you still use the site, you might land in trouble. In fact, the MPAA or the Motion Picture Association of America said that such websites are considered a notorious website as they make all the latest movies available for Hd download. After Tamilrockers, Movie4Me is said to be the most notorious piracy website worldwide.
As per the reports, the website had once recorded over 98 million users monthly, which is very high that has been designated as an illegal website. The website is reportedly developed in Vietnam.

How does Movie4Me work?

Movie4Me is a free movie download website, which is being operated by a bunch of people from undisclosed locations. In order to make money or convert its millions of user into money, the owners of the website use different ads network. Notably, Movie4Me does not use Google AdSense ads becuase they promote piracy and that is against Google’s policy.

Is it safe to use Movie4Me?

No.. It is not safe for a longer period of time. Movie4Me is a torrent website, which has been banned by the Indian government. Using any torrent website or piracy website in India is a crime. Besides some legal issue, if you use any illegal and pirate website, you may get some unusual malware or even viruses in your PC or mobile. There is a possibility that you may accidentally click on a specific link while using this website, which may cause malware to enter your PC. You can also take it to some websites that are not protected.
Another thing is that Movie4Me can damage your mobile device or your computer. There is a possibility that you may experience that your device is running slow or even overheating when you use the Movie4Me website. The reason for this is that this website is using more ROM to be able to stream and get the videos you want to watch. And worst of all, the processor of your computer or mobile device may get damaged after a long time of using Movie4Me.

How to use Google Trick to Download Movie rulz

Downloading movies or web series from Movie rulz is quite dangerous as it not legal in India. But, there are Google tricks making it easier for users to download all the latest HD movies or web series in HD quality. You might be thinking that downloading Movies from the torrent website is far difficult but you are wrong. In this article, we have brought you some tips for making your work easier. Without having to go to these websites, we could easily perform this task by applying a little Google trick.
If you do not know, this Google trick is one of many that currently exist to activate a certain number of services. It is so easy, you could make a calculator, the translator, a unit converter and much more apparent. In order to make use of this other alternative, we must only use a small command line that is very easy to remember.

Final Words About Movie4Me

So, that’s it for this post about Movie4Me. Piracy has been a major problem for the movie industry and sites like Movie4Me are one of the biggest producers of pirated content. Many awareness campaigns have been started to make people aware of this problem. People are getting more aware day by day and are refraining themselves from watching pirated content. If you have any questions in your mind then feel free to leave a comment below we will try to answer them asap. Stay tuned for more such informative posts. Thanks for reading.

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Disclaimer:

We The Live Mirror neither supports not promotes any piracy or torrent websites. We respect the Indian constitution and know how dangerous is downloading contents from pirated websites such as Movie4Me.com, Movie4Mems.com, Movie4Mepz.com, Movie4Memovies.com among others The content shown above is solely to provide our readers with the necessary information about the illegal a tivities. We do not intend to encourage our readers to use piracy or torrent websites. We urge our readers to stay away from such kinds of websites
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2020.09.19 17:52 creatinsanivity Let's talk a Finnish icon: The Ismo Alanko primer

I was challenged into writing a primer on one of Finland's primary songwriters of all time by u/Zhanteimi at the LetsTalkMusic discord. So here's an album-by-album runthrough of his career!
Context
No artist's career begins with the first album, so naturally nor did Alanko's. Long story short, he was born in a highly artistic family (mother a poet, all siblings musicians), picked cello as his instrument of choice, found rock (especially the Hurriganes debut) and picked a guitar, wrote his first song 'Suck and Fuck All Night Long' (no recordings of this exist, but apparently one of his bands named itself after the song), and formed a number of bands with varying levels of success. His most succesful pre-Hassisen Kone band was a prog band called Sight, which got on the second place in the prog section of Finnish Rock Championship competition (in 1977 or 1978). After he finished high school in the spring of 1979, he moved to Stockholm for the summer. This turned out to be the decision that became the catalyst for huge parts of his career, including...
Hassisen Kone - Täältä tullaan Venäjä
While in Stockholm, Alanko caught wind of a new wave of rock beginning in Finland. A breath of fresh air in the previously stale rock scene. He returned to Joensuu and put together a band from his bandmates from Sight (Reijo Heiskanen and Harri Kinnunen), and Harri's then 17-year-old brother Jussi. They eventually named the band Hassisen Kone, after a sewing machine store in town (the deeply religious shopkeeper was not amused).
The band recorded an album-length demo in 1979 and were signed on a label relatively quickly. They were also qualified to enter the 1980 Finnish Rock Championship competition (even though the judges nearly disqualified them, for they thought they might be professional musicians performing under fake names), which they won, gaining reputation preceding the recording of their debut album.
In August of 1980, the band released Täältä tullaan Venäjä. Propelled by arguably the biggest hit single in Alanko's career, Rappiolla [which was hilariously covered by Metallica recently (which was spontaneously responded to by Ismo Alanko himself)], the album became a smash hit. The album provides variety from straight-up new wave punk to talkingheadsian grooves, schlager punk, simplified swing jazz, ska-infused rock, to whatever you'd categorise 'Viimeinen rock ennen aivokuolemaa' as. It's an ambitious yet consistent whole but, in my opinion, the weakest of the three Hassisen Kone albums. The youthful anarchic feel it has can be refreshing every now and then, but this burst of energy from an obviously young (only two of the bandmembers even in their 20s, band only half a year old) band is redirected better on the follow-up.
Hassisen Kone - Rumat sävelet
Following the release of their debut, the band found themselves in a position that many acts today would both fear and envy: they played hundreds of gigs in the second half of 1980 and the first half of 1981. The gruesome touring around the country took a toll on the young band, but that's only barely comparable to the toll that the audience took on them. For example, as time went by, the band grew tired of the audience drunkenly demanding 'Rappiolla', so they stopped playing the song altogether. This time of maturing and growing more and more cynical reflected on their sophomore effort.
Rumat sävelet should not necessarily be described as bleak per se, but it is certainly darker, tighter, and more mature than the band's debut. The band tackles sounds ranging from quasi-prog expression to post-punk, punk, psychobilly, and they take the talkingheadsian qualities into a sharper direction. The lyrics touch upon issues like love, exploitation, and sex (it's curious to think that probably the most explicit Finnish song about sex before this album was about "curly armpit hair", while Alanko dares to sing about penetration itself). I have to admit that I have a bit of a bias when it comes to this one though, as it's undoubtedly my favourite album of all time.
Hassisen Kone - Harsoinen teräs (and High Tension Wire)
In 1981, the band participated on a riverboat tour with a couple of other punk acts. During this tour, the bassist broke (drugs), Alanko met "Safka" Pekkonen, and the band was generally put under huge stress as the diet consisting mainly of alcohol began burning them down and their every move was documented by either film makers Mika and Aki Kaurismäki or the columnist documenting the tour for a zine. Despite all this, some of the better live recordings of the band come from this tour, and both the live album and the Kaurismäki documentary are worth digging up for the music.
After the tour, the band expanded into a septet with the addition of a keyboardist (Pekkonen), a saxophonist (Antti Seppo), and a percussionist (Hannu Porkka). The final form of the band was shaped during the rehearsals by the departure of guitarist Heiskanen, who was replaced by the guitar wizard Jukka Orma.
Released in March of 1982, Harsoinen teräs is the band's most artistically ambitious work. It's an album combining the band's prog leanings seamlessly with the band's new wave leanings, a polished whole that takes cues from I don't even know where. Reggae at least on a couple of tracks, prog and new wave on most, but the general sound is unlike anything I've ever encountered. The album was re-recorded in English as High Tension Wire later on in the year, after a tour had slightly tightened the band's sound. The decision to do so apparently came after the decision to disband the band, which makes it a very baffling addition to Hassisen Kone's discography. You'd think that they'd release an album in English as an attempt to break into international markets, right?
Sielun Veljet - Sielun Veljet
After Hassisen Kone was disbanded (in August 1982), Alanko had a schlager rock project that eventually turned into Sielun Veljet by December. The band was comprised of Alanko, Orma, a drummer veteran Alf Forsman, Alanko's Stockholm contact Jouko Hohko on bass, Vinski Viholainen doing lighting, and a future cult legend Jouni Mömmö doing "weird noises".
Sielun Veljet were signed in early 1983, but they refused to record a studio album because Viholainen's lighting work wouldn't show in a studio recording. Instead, as a compromise, they agreed on recording a live album where "the lighting would affect the ambiance". They set out to do this on a tour they began on March, planning on recording the first show and the last one. However, fate interfered and Orma accidentally cut tendons from his fingers during the tour while cutting bread, which made the recordings from the last show basically unusable due to his difficulties in adjusting to the situation (a very punk move to finish the tour even with torn tendons, by the way).
The live album is punk/post-punk goodness. It's noisy, no-wavey rock that really shows how the band took all the drugs in the process of writing these harsh, repetitive songs. It also shows that Alanko wished to abandon messing around with intricate compositions in favour of a more stripped and primal expression.
Sielun Veljet - Lapset
In summer of 1983, the band brightened up a bit to record this odd EP in a style following directly from the debut. It's angular and distorted, yet the melodies are more melodic and jamming less bleak. It's also the home of the only a capella punk song I've ever heard.
Sielun Veljet - Hei soturit
In 1984, Sielun Veljet took their first coherent step toward a pop/rock idiom with their first studio album. Hei soturit is the awkward outlier between the band's grimy punk era and commercial rock era. It feels like a punk band working with a producer who doesn't understand punk, but even the clumsy production doesn't entirely hide the fact that some of these songs are absolutely iconic. From punk to garage rock, general oddness, and flirting even with metal, this selection of songs does provide good variety for anyone digging deeper in Alanko's body of work.
Sielun Veljet - L'amourha
The Sielun Veljet breakthrough album! The beginning of their rock era of albums, an only mildly angular affair with anthemic choruses and a muscular production. It was recorded after the band had toured all over Europe, honing their sound and Alanko finding a lot to say about international affairs and the human condition.
There are a plenty of anecdotes from the time of release of this album. The song 'On mulla unelma' was written by Alanko in Spain, when he was recovering from a disease (can't remember which one. Dysentery?) and bitter about nationalism, and it caused quite a scandal when the band unexpectedly debuted it on live television. They performed an impromptu Red Riding Hood play on their album release party instead of playing music. One of the members went missing in Russia for days after the band found a corpse. All of their instruments were stolen in Spain. There'd a lot to unpack from 1984-5 alone.
Sielun Veljet - Kuka teki huorin
The follow-up to L'amourha takes the band to a funkier place. It's a minor downgrade from the previous effort, a slightly directionless and overpolished effort that has diverse variety from RHCP-like funk rock to tango-infused rock, tribal chants, and what's essentially watered down imitation of their earlier work. It's an easy album to criticise, yet I don't find ever to be outright bad. A lot of it is extremely forgettable though
L'amourder - Ritual and Shit-Hot
Sielun Veljet recorded a bunch of their songs in English as L'amourder. Most of them follow the originals very closely, but there are a few surprises. The biggest change is on the translation of 'Tuulelta vastauksen saan', which has been turned into a cover of Bob Dylan's 'Blowin' in the Wind'.
Sielun Veljet - Suomi - Finland
Suomi - Finland begins the last era of the band, as this album brings more acoustic instruments to the mix and begins to flirt with psychedelia in a way that will culminate on the follow-up. It feels like a breaking point for the band, as it sprawls on multiple directions at once, the musicians seemingly having lost focus. It feels like a band slowly drifring apart, yet it remains consistently captivating as the different influences come together in this chaotic work.
"Various Artists" - Onnenpyörä
Sielun Veljet performed under a number of false identities on their Onnenpyörä-tour, four of which make an appearance on this recording. All of these are cover bands of sorts, and each one of them had a different repertoire of songs they played on these wildly differing sets. The most noteworthy of these personae are the pavillion dance band Kullervo Kivi ja Gehenna-yhtye and the rock band Leputation of the Slaves, the two having the most songs on the record.
Sielun Veljet - Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars
Who would have thought that the noisy punk band in 1983 would eventually release what could be called a psychedelic flamenco album in 1989? Many factors come together here, as the band continues on their effort to sell their music internationally by making the biggest left turn in memory. Orma's fascination with flamenco combines here with influences Alanko picked up in India and what could be called a somewhat logical progression from the budding psychedelia of Suomi - Finland. It's a weird album, that's for sure. A bit inconsistent, but easily among the strangest albums I've ever heard.
Ismo Alanko - Kun Suomi putos puusta
In 1990, Alanko found himself in a situation where Sielun Veljet had almost run its course and he could finally start building a solo career. He recorded this solo debut as a quasi-concept album about rural flight, combining the various interest he wasn't able to pursue with the band into a unique singesongwriter album of sorts. It's a classic album and, in some ways, an ideal entry point into Alanko's work as it feels like it's his personal expression in its purest form.
The music on the album sounds mainly like pop rock of sorts, but it also takes cues from melancholic singesongwriter stuff, joyous showtunes, post-punk akin to Nick Cave's work, and some field recording experiments. It finds a good balance between artistic ambition and catchiness, and it's home to some of the most iconic tracks in Ismo Alanko songbook.
Sielun Veljet - Musta laatikko
Do you know Tom Waits' Orphans? This one is kind of like that. Three discs filled with random stuff recorded over years.
The first disc, "Muistinmenetys", is one third a new studio album (very weird new direction to take, something that feels like a cross between chill hippie jamming and 80s dance pop), one third music from some production, and one third short excerpts from live performances. The second disc, "Taudinkuva", is mainly live performances of late 80s Sielun Veljet songs, Tuomari Nurmio covers, and some other oddities. And finally, the third disc, "Isältä pojalle", is a full pavillion dance set, the band LARPing as a suave and jazzy house band playing waltz, tango, schlager, and anything that's really expected of them.
This album is definitely a skippable one, but there are a few gems that an Ismo Alanko fan might get a lot out of. The flamenco pieces are cool, the Tuomari Nurmio covers are nice (more about those later), and that pavillion dance set is unexpectedly fun, especially if you're not already familiar with the tradition.
Ismo Alanko - Jäätyneitä lauluja
Alanko goes electronic! This album was originally lauded as cutting edge and a sign of significant artistic growth, but it has definitely fallen in popularity over the years. It sounds extremely like a product of its time, so if you like non-industrial synthpop-y rock from 90s, this is exactly your thing. Overall, it's still very surprising how many Alanko live staples come from this album though, and how some of his live bands have improved on all of them.
Ismo Alanko - Taiteilijaelämää
If someone doesn't think that Kun Suomi putos puusta is Alanko's magnum opus, they usually pick this one. Taiteilijaelämää feels like a combination of the first two solo albums (acoustic, electric, and electronic joining hands in harmony), but brought into the mid-90s rock idiom. The result is an interesting album that lacks real highs but remains consistently accessible, and the one Ismo Alanko work I've heard to have resonated with Beck fans for some reason.
Ismo Alanko - I-r-t-i
I made the mistake of learning that this album was written in only two weeks (because Alanko wanted to test himself), and now that's all I can think of while listening to it. This does feel halfbaked. The accessible rock sound it has is underproduced and covers up lazy songwriting more than once. That said, Alanko has later on proven that some of these songs can be absolutely amazing live, and the demo-like quality many of these tracks have can be seen as a feature instead of a bug. Pushing its flaws aside, I feel that it is underappreciated as an album, and feel like its high points deserve more attention.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Pulu
Säätiö was an interesting group. I'm honestly still a bit unclear whether they should be considered Alanko's backing band, a band that just happened to capitalise on his name, or a fullblown collective of musicians. Alanko's statements concerning the group together with the changing lineups on Säätiö albums both point to all three options. What I do know is that the band has two distinct eras, the first one kickstarted by Pulu.
I genuinely believe that the first iterarion of Säätiö is the most important band Alanko worked with. The amount of pure talent in that band is staggering with Jussi Kinnunen (Hassisen Kone) on bass, Teho Majamäki (HC Andersen, Tapani Rinne, Ismo Alanko Teholla) on percussion, Kimmo Pohjonen (you will want to check his solo stuff) on accordion, and Marko Timonen (Värttinä, Tuomari Nurmio) on drums giving Alanko's songwriting a fascinating folk rock spin, reeking of schlager and eastern mysticism. Pulu is an album that seeps nostalgia, is radical enough to upset traditional folk nerds, is accessible enough to have produced multiple Alanko live staples, and is significant enough a twist on Alanko's tropes to sound fresh even in his eclectic body of work. Yet, I feel like it's so self-referential that I feel like recommending it as anyone's first Ismo Alanko album could be a mistake.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Luonnossa
Säätiö playing acoustic renditions from the entire Ismo Alanko songbook, from Täältä tullaan Venäjä to Pulu. An exciting set, and definitely one of the best live albums I've ever heard. The band reworks this wide variety of songs into captivating folk rock, transforming the music into forms that defy expectations. There are some duds though, but not all fan favourites can sound great with just one band.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Sisäinen solarium
This is possibly the weirdest Ismo Alanko album to this date. It continues with nearly the same lineup as on Pulu, but takes the music in a radically new direction, exploring what modernised folk could be rather than wallowing on nostalgia. This means updating the largely acoustic instrumentation with both electric and electronic instruments, and creating an unpredictable tapestry of music with influences that are surprisingly difficult to pinpoint. Some say this kind of experimentation cheapens traditional folk (which is something I can agree with regarding some songs on this album), but I'm not sure if such a clearcut statement can be made of the full album. It's certainly aiming for a sound of its own.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Hallanvaara
This is where Säätiö's status as a band becomes complicated. There's absolutely no reason to call this anything but an Ismo Alanko solo album, so marketing it as an Ismo Alanko Säätiö album is baffling to say the least. I mean, the only constants on this album are Alanko himself, the producemulti-instrumentalist Riku Mattila, and various symphonic elements (I don't want to downplay the work the symphonic orchestra and the string section do on this album, but they have been used quite haphazardly). There are three members from the previous Säätiö albums involved in this project: Marko Timonen on nine tracks, Samuli Laiho on seven tracks, and Kimmo Pohjonen on one track. In addition to this, there's the bassist of the next iteration of Säätiö, Jarno Karjalainen, on six tracks. Thus, there are Säätiö band members playing on the majority of these tracks, but never as a full band.
That all being said, I believe this to be the best Säätiö album. The melancholic pieces are beautifully fragile, the pop tracks are catchy, the massive songs are massive, and the atmospheric pieces are chillingly well-arranged. And even the weaker songs here are excellent live, making this album probably the richest one to mine for a live set of any kind.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Elävää musiikkia
Honestly, this feels like a bit of a throwaway live album. On one hand, these rock renditions of a great setlist of songs are unique but, on the other hand, none of these performances improve on the studio recordings. 'Kansallispäivä' and 'Julkinen eläin' come really close though, both being sharper and meaner than the 80s versions.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Minä ja pojat
The first album with the second iteration of the band. Fuzzy rock in similar vein to Smashing Pumpkins and their kin, but played through the lense of Alanko's style of songwriting. It's never as hard-hitting or catchy as an album by a great rock band would be -- all of the songs soften up during the chorus -- but the youthful and slightly naivistic touch is welcome after a string of artistically ambitious albums. That said, I'm only attached to a single song on the whole album, which is definitely not a good sign.
Ismo Alanko Säätiö - Ruuhkainen taivas
The second (and last) studio album of the second iteration of Säätiö is a different beast than the first one, taking the rock approach to a slightly more complex direction. It's more mature and chromatic than the first album, yet I personally find it to sound slightly less inspired. However, at the same time, it does have more tracks that I would consider keepers and the general sound is harder to define. Thus, it's definitely a divisive album, conflicting.
I'm not sure how to describe the sound of this album. It's unmistakeably early 2000s rock, sounding like an average Finnish rock band from the era, yet the songwriting and the production also remind me of the band Wire out of all things. It's a digestible alternative/indie rock sound, whenever it doesn't abruptly go in a new direction.
Sielun Veljet - Otteita Tuomari Nurmion laulukirjasta
Remember those random Tuomari Nurmio covers on Musta Laatikko? Turns out, Sielun Veljet recorded a full album of those in (I assume) late 80s. They didn't end up using those recordings for anything, so they were packed away and stored somewhere. Years went by and a good portion of those recordings were destroyed due to poor storing conditions, but someone was eventually inspired to put the surviving songs to good use.
You'll be in for a treat, if you like Sielun Veljet and have never heard anything by Tuomari Nurmio. Most of these covers are originally from Nurmio's early 80s albums, his strange new wave turned into the angular rock Sielun Veljet perfected. Some of these songs only barely work, some sound like Sielun Veljet originals, but most are just serviceable covers. It's still a good album though.
Ismo Alanko Teholla - Blanco spirituals
After putting Säätiö on hold (perhaps indefinitely), Alanko joined forces with Teho Majamäki, the first iteration Säätiö percussionist. Together they stripped down a number of Ismo Alanko songbook staples to a form they could perform as a duo, essentially bringing the strengths of Alanko's live performances alone together with the strengths of him performing with a small ensemble. This endeavour proved succesful, so the two recorded two albums of original music as well.
The music of Blanco spirituals is surprisingly full. The two musicians fill space well, with Alanko singing and playing chord instruments (mainly guitar and piano), while Majamäki stretches himself as thin as possible, working a drumset, vibes, an array of percussions, an oscillating delay pedal, and singing backing vocals. It's usually at least two of those at the same time, often three. Him working in a live environment is a sight to behold.
This is honestly one of my favourite Ismo Alanko albums. The stripped down arrangements bring the most out of Alanko's songwriting. The selection of songs highlight very different sides of his style, from theatrical piano ballads to singalong acoustic guitar romps, silly pop songs, and trance-inducing rock. It's by no means a perfect album, but these simple songs all work in one way or another.
Sielun Veljet - Kansan parissa (1-4)
Archival live recordings of sets recorded around 1989-1991. The first one is a typical Sielun Veljet set, the second one filled with Tuomari Nurmio covers, the third one is material from Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars, and the fourth one is a mix of subtle experimentation, new tracks, and deep cuts. Quite a comprehensive collection of live music. However, only few tracks are really worth keeping, including the electrifying high-tempo performance of 'Lammassusi' and the prototypical version of Alanko's 'Don Quiote'.
Ismo Alanko Teholla - Onnellisuus
The simplicity of the previous album is gone, replaced by a polished and highly produced pop sound. The DIY duo sound gives way to a more layered style, where synths, samples, and doubled vocals are added to the band's sound. Acoustic instruments are largely replaced by electric guitars and synths, turning the folksy garage band sound to a sleak and radio-friendly beast. If the fact that I just phrased the same exact thing in three ways didn't clue you in yet, I'm not particularly fond of this change of direction. However, I've seen this ridiculously often called the best Ismo Alanko album since the 90s, so it does appeal to the masses.
If you like 2010s pop and are looking for a decent gateway to Alanko's music, this could be the album to start with. It's accessible.
Hassisen Kone - 20 vuotta myöhemmin
Hassisen Kone had a reunion in 2000. They played a show that was both filmed and recorded. It's an interesting document of musicians playing music they wrote 20 years earlier. However, it ultimately sounds a bit tired compared to both the tight playing on their studio recordings and the energy levels on their 80s live recordings.
Ismo Alanko - Maailmanlopun sushibaari
Remember when I said that most pick between Kun Suomi putos puusta and Taiteilijaelämää as Alanko's magnum opus? Well, this is that one for me. I'm not saying that to imply that it would be his best album, but it's the album where he finally brings his disparate influences together in a coherent but eclectic way. If Kun Suomi putos puusta is where Alanko's artistic voice is at its purest, this is where it is at its maturest and most representative of the multi-faceted artist he has become during his career.
More or less incidentally, this is also Alanko's midlife crisis album. It's not entirely thematic -- who even knows what 'Kuusilmä' is about? -- but it does touch upon themes like growing old, dying, passing the torch, losing one's touch, and liking the colour grey. It's not quite on the nose, but you don't exactly have to dissect the lyrics to find those undercurrents.
So what does the album sound like? It's lighter than you'd imagine based on the central themes. There's rock, funk, subtle latin feel, a capella, pop, traditional folk, and even an ambitious rock opera about what sounds like a zombie apocalypse. It's fairly eclectic, making it a nice first solo album to release in nearly two decades.
Ismo Alanko - 33 1/3: Kolmannesvuosisata taiteilijaelämää
This is the Ismo Alanko live album I recommend people to start with. Are these performances as exciting as their studio versions? No. But I'd argue that they don't have to be. The main strength this recording has is its uniformity. The songs are played in a generic rock band style, but it doesn't change the fact that the setlist is good and diverse. There's no compilation that would dive this deep in such a digestible manner. Essentially, this is the middle-of-the-road pick that gives an excellent cursory look into a prolific artist's entire body of work (up until 2013).
Ismo Alanko - Ismo Kullervo Alanko
Considering how introspective and self-reflective the previous album is, it's surprising that Alanko decided to name this one after himself. It works though. The songs are produced sparser and airier than on any other Ismo Alanko album, making the music feel intimate and almost confessional. It feels like you're sitting in the same room with him, as he opens up to you. Amazingly produced album.
Ismo Alanko - Pannaanko pakasteet pieneen pussiin?
To be frank, I don't think this EP is an essential release. It's noteworthy for the modern hobo blues feel it has, and for having one of the very few covers Alanko has recorded so far, but none of these songs have an iconic feel to them. The best I can say about it is that none of the songs are bad, but neither are they memorable.
Ismo Alanko - Yksin Vanhalla
I wish more band-focused artists performed live alone every now and then. An arrangement stripped down to just vocals and an instrument (in Alanko's case, usually acoustic guitar, piano, or cello) turns every song into something entirely different. However, the lyrics grow in significance as instruments are dropped, so your mileage may vary with this one. I still enjoy it though.
Pohjonen Alanko - Northern Lowland
Alanko collaborates with Kimmo Pohjonen and Tuomas Norvio to bring us an electronic neon-shamanic album. Primal chants and vocalisations blending together with beats ranging from harsh to chill and breakbeat-y. It's a fascinating EP, even if highly gimmicky and lacking a sense of direction. Besides, this stuff will always be better live than on a studio recording.
Ismo Alanko - Minä halusin olla niin kuin Beethoven
And finally, the latest Ismo Alanko album, where he takes yet another left turn. This one was mainly recorded by Alanko alone in a studio, but eventually a drummer and a keyboardist were brought in to round up the sound. And what a sound it is! Youthful indie rock with a production that's stuck somewhere between the 00s and the 80s. If it were not for 58-year-old Alanko's vocals and eccentric riffing, I could very well believe this to be a debut album by ambitious 20-somethings.
Summary
Since Alanko's full albums are not readily available on many countries (especially the US), I'll provide a summary that's somewhere between a longish TL;DR, a series of recommendations, and a quick-glance overview of his career.
Album:: Täältä tullaan Venäjä (1980) [new wave punk] Representative track: Rock ehkäisyvälineitä vastaan (a bouncy high-tempo punk track)
Album: Rumat sävelet (1981) [new wave/post-punk] Representative track: Jurot nuorisojulkkikset (a gloomy post-punk-infused rock track)
Album: Harsoinen teräs (1982) [new wave/progressive rock] Representative track: Kupla kimaltaa (a well-flowing new wave track with a progressive song structure)
Album: Sielun Veljet (1983) [punk/post-punk] Representative track: Pieni pää (a noisy punk track with groovy tribal drumming and metallic guitar playing)
Album: Lapset (1983) [punk/post-punk] Representative track: Elintaso (an angular punk track)
Album: Hei soturit (1984) [post-punk/alternative rock] Representative track: Tää on tää (a straightforward punk track with a catchy hook)
Album: L'amourha (1985) [post-punk/hard rock] Representative track: Peltirumpu (a hard-hitting rock song with dissonant guitars)
Album: Kuka teki huorin (1986) [post-punk/funk rock] Representative track: Kristallilapsia (a funk rock track with screechy guitars and an unfunky bassline)
Album: Suomi - Finland (1988) [post-punk/psychedelic rock] Representative track: Totuus vai tequila (a ferocious folk punk track)
Album: Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars (1989) [psychedelic rock/flamenco] Representative track: Life is a Cobra (a psychedelic track combining flamenco rhythms and Indian string sections)
Album: Kun Suomi putos puusta (1990) [singesongwriter] Representative track: Kun Suomi putos puusta (a gentle organ-led track with subtle folk influence and field recordings)
Album: Jäätyneitä lauluja (1993) [electronic rock] Representative track: Pornografiaa (a slightly industrial-tinged electronic rock track)
Album: Taiteilijaelämää (1995) [art rock] Representative track: Nuorena syntynyt (a 90s sounding rock track with a freeform looseness to it)
Album: I-r-t-i (1996) [alternative rock] Representative track: Kriisistä kriisiin (a rock track with a steady dance pulse on the actual rock sections)
Album: Pulu (1998) [folk rock/art rock] Representative track: Rakkaus on ruma sana (a track with pseudo-shamanistic verses and catchy choruses)
Album: Sisäinen solarium (2000) (art pop/folk rock) Representative track: Kirskainen hyvätyinen (a largely electronic and pulsing track that feels one part a strange rock experiment and one part a traditional Finnish folk song)
Album: Hallanvaara (2002) (art pop/symphonic rock) Representative track: Paratiisin puu (a smooth pop track with significant classical influence)
Album: Minä ja pojat (2004) [alternative rock] Representative track: Joensuu (a straightforward and fuzzy rock song)
Album: Ruuhkainen taivas (2006) [alternative rock) Representative track: Paskiainen (a rock track alternating between manic psychobilly and catchy radio rock)
Album: Blanco spirituals (2008) [minimalistic art pop] Representative track: Päästänkö irti (an acoustic rock track with an interesting chord sequence)
Album: Onnellisuus (2010) [art pop] Representative track: Onnellisuus (a danceable and atmospheric pop track)
Album: Maailmanlopun sushibaari (2013) [alternative rock] Representative track: Vanha nuori (an accessible pop track with a funky brass section and theatrical choruses)
Album: Ismo Kullervo Alanko (2015) [art pop/singesongwriter] Representative track: Lintuperspektiivi (a melancholic and sparsely produced track with airy ambience)
Album: Northern Lowland (2018) [glitch hop-y tribal electronic music] Representative track: Northern Lowland (a track with primal chanting and glitchy beats)
Album: Minä halusin olla niin kuin Beethoven (2019) [80s flavour indie rock] Representative track: Transsioletettu tanssi (a funky rock track with a somewhat generic 2000s rock chorus)
Discussion
What is your opinion on Ismo Alanko? I personally enjoy how prolific and eclectic he has been, and I find it a shame that most of his work has never left Finland. I can especially imagine punk fans easily getting into his 80s work.
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2020.09.18 19:54 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery (Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.)

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
https://philosophy.ucla.edu/person/brian-copenhave
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library & The Embassy of the Free Mind
https://www.youtube.com/c/EmbassyoftheFreeMind/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
https://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
https://brill.com/view/serial/ARBS?language=en
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2020.09.18 19:44 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Books, Websites, Blogs & More Resources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery

Crossposted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
https://philosophy.ucla.edu/person/brian-copenhave
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library & The Embassy of the Free Mind
https://www.youtube.com/c/EmbassyoftheFreeMind/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
https://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
https://brill.com/view/serial/ARBS?language=en
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submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to witchcraft [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:33 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Sources for Pre-1800's Magic & Sorcery Books, Websites, Blogs and etc.

Cross-posted from Magick.
Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to occult [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 19:31 Brother_Moloch_969 List of Academic Pre-1800's Occult Books, Websites, Blogs & Etc.

Greetings. Several years ago, I along with some friends (Aaron Leitch, Jake Stratton-Kent, Frater Rufus Opus, and many others) contributed to a list we thought would be a great resource for studying Magic & Sorcery with academic elements listed prior to the 1800's new age movement. Here you will find a lot of useful information and realize this list is NOT complete because since the time we created this list, more academic material has emerged on the market. Also realize these books are not often found free on the Net in pdf form so you will have to do like the rest of us had to do which is purchase them - if you want them. I got many of these books in used condition from Amazon, AbeBooks, Half-Price Books, and so forth. Getting these materials & studying them will seriously up your magical game. Enjoy!
8o) Br Moloch 9.6.9.
Books:
  1. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the Demotic Spells: Texts (Volume 1)” by Hans Dieter Betz - This is a collection of magical spells and formulas, hymns, and rituals from Greco-Roman Egypt, dating from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. A must read.
  2. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World” edited by John G. Gager - In the ancient Greco-Roman world, it was common practice to curse or bind an enemy or rival by writing an incantation on a tablet and dedicating it to a god or spirit. These curses or binding spells, commonly called defixiones were intended to bring other people under the power and control of those who commissioned them
  3. Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion” edited by Christopher A. Faraone & Dirk Obbink - This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined.
  4. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Collection of Ancient Texts” by Georg Luck - Magic, miracles, daemonology, divination, astrology, and alchemy were the arcana mundi, the "secrets of the universe," of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this path-breaking collection of Greek and Roman writings on magic and the occult, Georg Luck provides a comprehensive sourcebook and introduction to magic as it was practiced by witches and sorcerers, magi and astrologers, in the Greek and Roman worlds.
  5. Greek and Roman Necromancy” by Daniel Ogden - In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language.
  6. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century” by Richard Kieckhefer - Like many medieval texts for the use of magicians, this handbook is a miscellany rather than a systematic treatise. It is exceptional, however, in the scope and variety of its contents—prayers and conjurations, rituals of sympathetic magic, procedures involving astral magic, a catalogue of spirits, lengthy ceremonies for consecrating a book of magic, and other materials.
  7. Ritual Magic” by Elizabeth M. Butler - In this classic book (first published in 1949), Butler explores ritual magic using a wide range of texts from the pre-Christian rites of the Akkadians and Chaldeans to the Solomonic Clavicles of medieval Europe. Throughout, there is extensive quotation from the documents themselves, providing the reader with an authentic sense of the richness and power of these texts.
  8. Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic” edited by Claire Fanger - Included are chapters by Richard Kieckhefer and Robert Mathiesen on the Sworn Book of Honorius, Michael Camille on the Ars Notoria, John B. Friedman on the Secretum Philosophorum, Nicholas Watson on the McMaster text, and Elizabeth Wade on Lullian divination. The work also includes Juris Lidaka's edition of the Liber de Angelis, and an overview of late medieval English ritual manuscripts by Frank Klaassen.
  9. The Fortunes of Faust” by Elizabeth M. Butler - Butler follows the magic tradition of the Magus—the priest-king—and its reformulation in the Christian world. In the process, the Magus was transformed into a wicked sorcerer who comes to a bad end in this world and a worse one hereafter. This conception, which gained ground in the Middle Ages, received its most categorical statement in the Faust legend.
  10. The Goetia of Dr. Rudd” by David Rankine & Stephen Skinner - The Goetia of Dr. Rudd explains how the 72 angels of the Shemhamphorash are used to evoke and safely bind demons—material that has not been made available in any previous edition. This rare volume contains a transcription of a hitherto unpublished manuscript of the Lemegeton and includes illustrations drawn from rare manuscripts held in the British Library.
  11. The Complete Magician’s Tables” by Stephen Skinner - The sources of this remarkable compilation range from classic grimoires such as the Sworn Book to modern theories of prime numbers and atomic weights. Data from Peter de Abano, Abbott Trithemium, Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and other prominent scholars is referenced here, in addition to hidden gems found in unpublished medieval grimoires and Kabbalistic works.
  12. The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the Solomonic Archangels and Demon Princes” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - This classic text of the Nine Great Keys details the invocation of the Archangels, the full hierarchy of spiritual beings (including Olympic Spirits and Elementals) and the evocation of the four Demon Princes
  13. Three Books of Occult Philosophy” by Henry Cornelius Agrippa & edited by Donald Tyson - How magicians collect virtues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three books. Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual, and every inferior is governed by its superior. Indispensable.
  14. The Complete Picatrix: The Occult Classic Of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus” translated by John Michael Greer & Christopher Warnock - The Picatrix is the most famous grimoire of astrological magic and one of the most important works of medieval and Renaissance magic. With all four books of the Latin Picatrix complete in one volume, the Picatrix is an encyclopedic work with over 300 pages of Hermetic magical philosophy, ritual, talismanic and natural magic.
  15. Secrets of the Magical Grimoires Revealed” by Aaron Leitch - The magickal methods and esoteric knowledge of medieval Europe (476 to 1453 C.E.) form the ancestral backbone of modern ceremonial magick. To understand medieval magick, it’s necessary to know the primary repositories of this knowledge - the grimoires of spells, incantations, and ritual instructions for working with angels and conjuring spirits. And to understand the grimoires, you must delve into the life and times of the magicians who wrote them.
  16. The True Grimoire” by Jake Kent-Stratton - The True Grimoire is a major contribution to the practice and study of Goetic magic. The neglected Grimorium Verum has been restored to it's rightful place as a potent and coherent system of Goetic magic. Jake Stratton-Kent has reconstructed a working version from the corrupted Italian and French versions of this important grimoire.
  17. Geosophia: The Argo of Magic” by Jake Stratton-Kent - Geosophia traces the development of magic from the Greeks to the grimoires, laying bare the chthonic roots of goetic ritual. By exposing the necromantic origins of much of modern magic we are able to reconnect with the source of our ritual tradition. There is a continuity of practice in the West which encompasses the pre-Olympian cults of Dionysus and Cybele, is found in the Greek Magical Papyri and Picatrix and flows into the grimoires.
  18. "Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power" by Marvin W. Meyer & Richard Smith - This provocative collection of rites, spells, amulets, curses, and recipes of the early Coptic Christians documents Christianity as a living folk religion resembling other popular belief systems - something quite different from what theological and doctrinal traditions have led us to believe.
  19. Invoking Angels: Theurgic Ideas and Practices, Thirteenth to Sixteenth Centuries” edited by Claire Fanger - Bring0s together a tightly themed collection of essays on late medieval and early modern texts concerned with the role of angels in the cosmos, focusing on angelic rituals and spiritual cosmologies. Collectively, these essays tie medieval angel magic texts more clearly to medieval religion and to the better-known author-magicians of the early modern period.
  20. The Testament of Cyprian the Mage” by Jake Stratton-Kent - An ambitious and far-seeing work, addressing two ends of the magical spectrum: the Testament of Solomon and one version of the Iberian Book of Saint Cyprian. In doing so, key aspects of magical practice are revealed. This work draws upon these texts to create a clear understanding of the practice of grimoire magic, not as a discrete or degenerate subset of ceremonial magic, but one which is integrated with folk magic and witchcraft.
  21. Veritable Key of Solomon” by Stephen Skinner & David Rankine - Based on one of the best-known grimoires of the Western world, The Veritable Key of Solomon presents all aspects of this revered magical system in one impressive source.
  22. The Magical Treatise of Solomon, or Hygromanteia” by Ioannis Marathakis - The true source of the Key of Solomon, it is arguably the most significant magical text in the world. For the first time ever, this extraordinary work has been translated from the original Greek into English.
  23. Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman World: A Sourcebook” by Daniel Ogden - Contains three hundred texts in new translations, along with brief but explicit commentaries. Alongside descriptions of sorcerers, witches, and ghosts in the works of ancient writers, it reproduces curse tablets, spells from ancient magical recipe books, and inscriptions from magical amulets.
  24. Ancient Jewish Magic: A History” by Gideon Bohak - Gives a pioneering account of the broad history of ancient Jewish magic, from the Second Temple to the rabbinic period. It is based both on ancient magicians' own compositions and products in Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek, and on the descriptions and prescriptions of non-magicians, to reconstruct a historical picture that is as balanced and nuanced as possible.
  25. John Dee's Natural Philosophy: Between Science and Religion” by Nicholas Clulee - Thoroughly examining Dee’s natural philosophy, this book provides a balanced evaluation of his place, and the role of the occult, in sixteenth-century intellectual history. It brings together insights from a study of Dee’s writings, the available biographical material, and his sources as reflected in his extensive library and, more importantly, numerous surviving annotated volumes from it.
  26. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books” by Owen Davies - Put simply, grimoires are books of spells that were first recorded in the Ancient Middle East and which have developed and spread across much of the Western Hemisphere and beyond over the ensuing millennia. At their most benign, they contain charms and remedies for natural and supernatural ailments and advice on contacting spirits to help find treasures and protect from evil. But at their most sinister they provide instructions on how to manipulate people for corrupt purposes and, worst of all, to call up and make a pact with the Devil. Both types have proven remarkably resilient and adaptable and retain much of their relevance and fascination to this day.
  27. The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa's Occult Philosophy” by Christopher I. Lehrich - The analysis walks the reader through the text of De Occulta Philosophia, Agrippa's 1533 masterpiece, explicating the often hidden structure and argument of the work.
  28. Thrice-Greatest Hermes; Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis” by G. R. S. Mead - Three Volumes bound into one. Volume contents are: Vol. 1. Prolegomena. -- Vol. 2. Sermons. -- Vol. 3. Excerpts and fragments.
  29. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind” by Garth Fowden - Starting from the complex fusions and tensions that molded Graeco-Egyptian culture, and in particular Hermetism, during the centuries after Alexander, the author argues that the technical and philosophical Hermetica, apparently so different, might be seen as aspects of a single "way of Hermes".
  30. Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Topics of focus include the origin of the goes (the ritual practitioner who made interaction with the dead his specialty), the threat to the living presented by the ghosts of those who died dishonorably or prematurely, the development of Hecate into a mistress of ghosts and its connection to female rites of transition, and the complex nature of the Erinyes.
  31. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate's Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature” by Sarah Illes Johnston - Hekate is best known to classicists and historians of religion as the horrific patroness of witches. But from the Hellenistic age onward, some Greek and Roman philosophers and magicians portrayed her quite differently.
  32. Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World” edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer.
  33. Marsilio Ficino: His Theology, His Philosophy, His Legacy” edited by V. Rees, Michael J. B. Allen & Valery Rees - This volume consists of 21 essays on Marsilio Ficino (1433-99), the great Florentine scholar, philosopher and priest who was the architect of Renaissance Platonism and whose long-lasting influence on philosophy, love and music theory, medicine and magic extended across Europe.
  34. Secrets of Nature: Astrology and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe” edited by William R. Newman & Anthony Grafton - Shows the many ways in which astrology and alchemy diverge as well as intersect. Overall, it shows how an appreciation of the role of the occult opens up new ways of understanding the past.
  35. Trithemius and Magical Theology: A Chapter in the Controversy over Occult Studies in Early Modern Europe” by Noel L. Brann - This is a very useful, exciting and informative text for those interested in the philosophy and theology behind Renaissance Magic. Mentor to Agrippa, pioneer of cryptography, Trithemius is one of the most important (and well-placed in Church history) yet difficult to understand of the great Renaissance writers on magic, and this book provides a detailed but readable introduction to his views on the subject.
  36. John Dee's Conversations with Angels” by Deborah E. Harkness - John Dee's angel conversations have been an enigmatic facet of Elizabethan England's most famous natural philosopher's life and work. Professor Harkness contextualizes Dee's angel conversations within the natural philosophical, religious and social contexts of his time. She argues that they represent a continuing development of John Dee's earlier concerns and interests. These conversations include discussions of the natural world, the practice of natural philosophy, and the apocalypse.
  37. John Dee's Occultism: Magical Exaltation Through Powerful Signs” by Gyorgy E. Szonyi - Presents an analysis of Renaissance occultism and its place in the chronology of European cultural history. Culling examples of "magical thinking" from classical, medieval, and Renaissance philosophers, Szonyi revisits the body of Dee's own scientific and spiritual writings as reflective sources of traditional mysticism.
  38. The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee” by Glyn Parry - Explores Dee’s vast array of political, magical, and scientific writings and finds that they cast significant new light on policy struggles in the Elizabethan court, conservative attacks on magic, and Europe's religious wars. John Dee was more than just a fringe magus, Parry shows Dee was a major figure of the Reformation and Renaissance.
  39. The Eternal Hermes: From Greek God to Alchemical Magus” by Antoine Favre - Drawing upon rare books and manuscripts, this highly illustrated work explores the question of where Hermes Trismegistus came from how he came to be a patron of the esoteric traditions and how the figure of Hermes has remained lively and inspiring to our own day.
  40. Glamorous Sorcery: Magic and Literacy in the High Middle Ages” by David Rollo - Demonstrates how closely interconnected certain types of vernacular and Latin writing were in this period. Uncovered through a series of illuminating, incisive, and often surprising close readings, these connections give us a new, more complex appraisal of the relationship between literacy, social status, and political power in a time and place in which various languages competed for cultural sovereignty-at a critical juncture in the cultural history of the West.
  41. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe” by Benedek Láng - During the Middle Ages, the Western world translated the incredible Arabic scientific corpus and imported it into Western culture: Arabic philosophy, optics, and physics, as well as alchemy, astrology, and talismanic magic. The line between the scientific and the magical was blurred. According to popular lore, magicians of the Middle Ages were trained in the art of magic in “magician schools” located in various metropolitan areas, such as Naples, Athens, and Toledo.
  42. The History of Magic and Experimental Science” by Lynn Thorndike.
  43. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice” by Robert K. Ritner - This study represents the first critical examination of "magical techniques," revealing their widespread appearance and pivotal significance for all Egyptian "religious" practices from the earliest periods through the Coptic era, influencing as well the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri.
  44. Eternal Egypt: Ancient Rituals for the Modern World” by Richard J. Reidy - The first comprehensive collection of important temple rituals performed throughout Egypt during the time of the pharaohs. The author presents seven key rites from official temple records and ancient esoteric texts for personal or group use.
  45. Arguing With Angels” by Egil Asprem - Examining this magical system from its Renaissance origins to present day occultism, Egil Asprem shows how the reception of Dee’s magic is replete with struggles to construct and negotiate authoritative interpretational frameworks for doing magic. Arguing with Angels offers a novel, nuanced approach to questions about how ritual magic has survived the advent of modernity and demonstrates the ways in which modern culture has recreated magical discourse.
  46. Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism” by Wouter J. Hanegraaff - This is the first comprehensive reference work to cover the entire domain of “Gnosis and Western Esotericism” from the period of Late Antiquity to the present. Containing around 400 articles by over 180 international specialists, it provides critical overviews discussing the nature and historical development of all its important currents and manifestations, from Gnosticism and Hermetism to Astrology, Alchemy and Magic, from the Hermetic Tradition of the Renaissance to Rosicrucianism and Christian Theosophy, and from Freemasonry and Illuminism to 19th-century Occultism and the contemporary New Age movement.
  47. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration” by Ursula Szulakowska - This study concerns the late Renaissance metaphysics of light in its adoption to a Paracelsian alchemical context by John Dee, Heinrich Khunrath, Michael Maier and Robert Fludd. he volume includes 50 illustrations from alchemical treatises of the period, the emphasis being placed on Khunrath's "Amphiteatrum Sapientiea Aeternae" (1595-1609). The study investigates these images using analytical tools drawn from semiotics, structuralism and post-structuralism.
  48. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus” by Gregory Shaw - A study of Iamblichus of Syria (ca. 240-325), whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism.
  49. Platonic Theology, Volume 1: Books I-IV” by Marsilio Ficino, edited by James Hankins - A visionary work and philosophical masterpiece of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), the Florentine scholar-philosopher-magus who was largely responsible for the Renaissance revival of Plato. A student of the Neoplatonic schools of Plotinus and Proclus, Ficino was committed to reconciling Platonism with Christianity, in the hope that such a reconciliation would initiate a spiritual revival and return of the golden age. This is one of the keys to understanding the art, thought, culture, and spirituality of the Renaissance.
  50. Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science” by Hilary Gatti - This argument, associated with the work of Frances Yates, holds that early modern science was impregnated with and shaped by Hermetic and occult traditions, and has led scholars to view Bruno primarily as a magus.
  51. De Umbris Idearum” (The Collected Works of Giordano Bruno, Book 1)” by Giordano Bruno, edited by Scott Gosnell - To memorize anything, distribute vivid, emotionally stirring imagined images around a piece of familiar architecture. This is the method of loci, or memory palace method, first developed in classical antiquity.
  52. "Hermes: Guide of Souls" by Karl Kerenyi, translated by Murray Stein - Presents an authoritative study of the great god Hermes whom the Greeks revered as the Guides of Souls as well as the complex role of Hermes in classical mythology.
  53. Ritual Texts for the Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets” by Fritz Graf and Sarah Illes Johnston - Fascinating texts written on small gold tablets that were deposited in graves provide a unique source of information about what some Greeks and Romans believed regarding the fate that awaited them after death, and how they could influence it. These texts, dating from the late fifth century BCE to the second century CE, have been part of the scholarly debate on ancient afterlife beliefs since the end of the nineteenth century. The tablets belonged to those who had been initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus Bacchius and relied heavily upon myths narrated in poems ascribed to the mythical singer Orpheus.
  54. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World” by Matthew W. Dickie - This study is the first to assemble the evidence for the existence of sorcerors in the ancient world; it also addresses the question of their identity and social origins. The resulting investigation takes us to the underside of Greek and Roman society, into a world of wandering holy men and women, conjurors and wonder-workers, and into the lives of prostitutes, procuresses, charioteers and theatrical performers.

Further Resources
PDF’s:
Seeing The Word: John Dee and Renaissance Occultism” by Hakan Hakannson http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Seeing+the+Word%3A+John+Dee+and+Renaissance+Occultism.+.-a099012024

Miscellaneous Articles:
Khunrath by Peter Forshaw
http://uva.academia.edu/PeterForshaw
Enoch Traditions by Andrei Orlov
http://www.marquette.edu/maqom/metatronyouth.html
Hermes, Proclus, and the Question of A Philosophy of Magic in the Renaissance by Copenhaver

Websites & Blogs:
Brian P. Copenhaver
http://www.cmrs.ucla.edu/brian/index.htm
Claire Fanger:
http://rice.academia.edu/ClaireFanger
Wouter J. Hanegraaff: http://uva.academia.edu/WouterHanegraaff
The Ritman Library
https://www.youtube.com/useTheRitmanLibrary/videos

Scholarly Journals:
Dionysius
http://www.dal.ca/faculty/arts/classics/journals/dionysius.html
Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism
http://www.brill.com/aries
Copyright www.molochsorcery.com All Rights Reserved
submitted by Brother_Moloch_969 to magick [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 06:05 Kitsunekko This current event may be a cause of concern for the direction Azur Lane is taking.

So as I'm sure many of you are aware, though I very much enjoy the patch thus far (other than the dreamworld timeout bug which is atrocious and having some mild login issues) and personally found this event to be far more generous than previous events have ever been, the most recent patch brought with it many controversies and worries, especially regarding the direction in which Azur Lane may be headed.
I myself wasn't really able to materialize most of these internal worries of mine, but another user, u/sanicek, was. I've received his permission to post an essay he had written regarding his worries about the current direction Azur Lane was headed, and his decision to quit.
Now, I don't agree with everything that has been posted here, but I do agree with a fair number of issues that u/sanicek has addressed, enough so that I think the concerns brought up in his essay warrant proper discussion, analysis, and exposure on a larger, better archived forum, so I've taken it on myself after discovering this essay (thanks to karastrinket from ALM) to bring it to the larger Azur Lane redditor audience.
Do keep in mind that it is a somewhat lengthy essay, so if you wish to discuss the issues that are addressed in depth, I would advise you to prepare some tea and perhaps some biscuits for the reading duration. A tl;dr is provided at the end nonetheless.

Hello,
with today's update I decided to quit AL and thought I would share my feedback on the reasons and general state of the game from my POV. Hopefully this is well within the scope of a game feedback channel. Gonna be my last post then you are rid of me.
Short background on who I am
Playing every single day since day 1 of official launch and Lexington opening
Commander lvl 128 20k fleet power,
#1 Lexington, I believe #3 AL global overall
100% collection (before this event, gonna miss the milestone rewards etc now)
153 lvl 120 ships ~170 oathed ships (basically oathing every ship I take above lvl 100)
regularly grinding well over 100k points on most events
Why I play AL:
- great art and variety of characters
- regular updates
- monetization used to be very generous
- great idle game that requires minimal attention to be played while working, reading, watching, playing real games, commuting, etc.
- you need time and effort to invest, not only money to reach top tiers
- instead of stamina we had the very flexible oil system
- you didn't need to pull duplicates as bulin supply was very generous
- all progression was very straightforward, few shared resources generally available from multiple sources, ie bulins, plates, BPs, gold, no convoluted bullshit progression
Why I started to like AL less and less:
1) Monetization: - every new system introduced was an additional resource drain without any resource income increase to compensate. This is true for PR, meowficcers, subs, awakening...
- global server pacing
- often events crammed back to back with little time to regain cubes
- general increasing greed and testing of limits the player base would tolerate, ie Hatsushimo, original -chan banner running in parallel to event, useless gem-only furniture designed to prey on collectors (ie cat cafe)
- PR3 fiasco
2) Game systems: - some game features are just lackluster or straight up bad:
- SOS mission implementation
- fleet management
- equipment management
- research and DR in particular
- proto core shop (the only function is to complement DR BP gain at exploitative rates once all PR are done)
- cognitive chip gain (only source is cube research that gets less rewarding once all PR are dev30, ties to above 2 points)
- RNG everywhere, cats, research, rewards
- existing systems already in game however not tied to monetization get ignored, ie: memory band rewards, more medal tiers, fleet tech
3) Technical implementation, localization, QoL - QA is abysmal, bugs, hotfixes, etc are a weekly routine after every maintenance
- 8h maintenance during prime time every week is simply unacceptable in 2020
- long standing technical insufficiencies with no improvement in sight such as support for different display ratios or iOS home bar interfering with UI elements
- text localization
- often missing in parts of new content, typos, questionable phrases, etc
- chat/text filter not adjusted to languages using latin script
- tied to above, text spacing for stuff like ship names, UI elements, chat char limit, etc
4) handling of time zones: - non-american time zones being screwed over for 2 years
- nightly commissions unusable, pvp timing, maintenance timing
- every maintenance and especially new event ones screw over non-americans
- every event time gate deliberately taking 12 hours of time away from non-americans
- simple QoL improvements not happening despite being requested since day 1, some examples: commision/lab notification visible in event screen, ship morale display, etc. there is multitude of valid QoL concerns and suggestions in trello and feedback chat
- technical progress glacial in general
- inability to deal with cheaters in a timely and effective manner
5) Communication and community management - non-existent
- no official community managers or liasons
- radio silence on every concern raised via any channel
- best we get is a troupe of discord volunteers that are mostly clueless about anything and whose only function seems to be to try to convince anyone raising valid concerns that they are wrong
Why I finally decided to quit:
As you can see above I grew more and more dissatisfied with AL over time. The game got greedier and greedier and development of features that were not directly monetizable was almost non-existent. What finally pushed me over the edge though is the combination of what was introduced to AL today and what is on the horizon in december (if they can even make that date lol).
Just to be clear this is not some rage quit over not getting a ship, in fact I got Shinano just fine and if I wasn't quitting would go for at least one more from 200 pull guarantee.
I am quitting because I see what these additions to the game represent. With Shinano, UR bulins and new currency we have:
- rarity powercreep
- new universal bulin that is more limited and harder to get
- new currency with built in monthly limit preventing from farming more of it, etc.
This is step 1 of transition of AL to more stringent progression control by the devs.
Accompanying this is the new baseline expectation on the number of pulls per event. 1.2% UR ships, and guaranteed pulls totaling 1600 cubes for the biggest whales. It's a deliberate scheme to milk big whales more, especially those going for fleet power. And it's disgusting.
Before now all UR ships were limited to 1 copy since they were either from research or retrofit. What is worse though is what we have on the horizon. Operation Siren and related gameplay mechanics. These will introduce stamina instead of oil, another step to strict gameplay limits imposed by the devs and again aimed at milking the big spenders and make them purchase oil ideally 10x each day to refill stamina making it much more p2w than normal oil based progression where you can utilize many oil saving strategies.
New end game progression is tied to this new resource. Coupled with it is the gear upgrade tree bringing convoluted bullshittery with this material or that that you need to obtain here or there. And while many people will like the new gameplay and I'm sure I would enjoy it at first a lot too it looks like it requires actual attention quite a bit more than what we have now. This is a downside for me, cba having to pay attention when trying to farm something in AL for the umpteenth time.
To summarize: With 3rd anniversary and operation siren on the horizon AL brings in almost all the shitty mechanics that are in other gachas and are the reason I don't play them:
- rarity power creep
- crap rates with pulls easily in hundreds of dollars
- stamina (and related gameplay limits and heavy p2w elements to play and farm more)
- convoluted upgrade progression
- other general changes in game direction that I strongly dislike
Simply put AL became a game I no longer wish to support and thus I'll just quit. It was fun while it lasted but now it's over. I think I'm done with gacha and freemium games in general, AL was supposed to be the last bastion but it didn't take long for money to triumph over principles.
Thank you for your time and attention in reading this essay, if you've taken it on yourself to read the whole thing.
Gonna add a personal snippet here while I have the chance:
A personal observation of mine, especially regarding Shinano: Shinano's banner may have been designed in a way that could potentially prey on the largest and thiccest of whales, but her banner is actually incredibly consumer friendly on further observation. Of note is that the SR pull rate remains 7%, while the 1.2% draw for Shinano was taken from the Common Pool. This means that in reality, this event had an 8.2% draw chance for either an SR or UR, which is incredibly generous for a gacha of this day and age. In addition, it also meant that were it any other event, that Shinano that you've acquired would have been something like a Nevada or Langley. As an extra bonus, this event even came with methods to guarantee acquiring said UR if lady luck isn't on your side, and also very generous events to grant you the UR Bulins you'll be needing for Shinano. So while the UR rate and model may be a cause for concern, should the game's future UR banners persist with the 7% SR 1.2% UR banner model, I for one would actually more than welcome future UR banners (given we're given enough time to recuperate our resources in a consumer-friendly fashion).
Please be mindful to keep the discussion civil. Yet again, thank you for your time and attention.
submitted by Kitsunekko to AzureLane [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 19:27 stake_pool Update and Few Thoughts, a (Well-Typed) transcript: Liza&Charles the marketeers, Voltaire kick-off, PrisM and Ebb-and-Flow to fuck ETH2.0 Gasper, the (back)log of a man and a falcon, lots of companies, September Goguen time, Basho, 2021 Titans, Basho, Hydra and much more thoughts and prayers

Hi everybody this is Charles Hoskinson broadcasting live from warm sunny Colorado. I'm trying a new streaming service and it allows me to annotate a few things and simulcast to both periscope and youtube. Let's see how this works. I also get to put a little caption. I think for the future, I'm just for a while going to put: "I will never give away ada". So, when people repost my videos for giveaway scams they at least have that. First off, a thank you, a community member named Daryl had decided to carve a log and give his artistic impression of my twitter profile picture of me and the falcon so that always means a lot when I get these gifts from fans and also I just wanted to, on the back of the Catalyst presentation, express my profound gratitude and excitement to the community.
You know it's really really cool to see how much progress has been made in such a short period of time. It was only yesterday when we were saying "when Shelley"? Now Shelley's out and it's evolving rapidly. Voltaire is now starting to evolve rapidly and we're real close to Goguen. At the end of this month we'll be able to talk around some of the realities of Goguen and some of the ideas we have and give some dates for certain things and give you a sense of where that project is at. The good news is that we have gained an enormous amount of progress and knowledge about what we need to do and how to get that done and basically people are just executing and it's a much smaller task than getting us to Shelley. With Byron to Shelley we literally had to build a completely new cryptocurrency from the ground up. We had to have new ledger rules, new update system, we had to invent a way of transitioning from one system to another system and there's hundreds of other little innovations along the way: new network stack and so forth. Byron cosmetically looks like Shelley but under the hood it's completely different and the Shelley design was built with a lot of the things that we needed for Goguen in mind. For example, we built Shelley with the idea of extended UTXO and we built Shelley understanding what the realities were for the smart contract model and that's one of the advantages you get when you do this type of bespoke engineering. There's two consequences to that, one, the integration is significantly easier, and two, the integration is significantly faster. We won't look at that same complexity there.
The product update at the end of the month... We'll really start discussing around some of these things as well as talk about partners and talk about how the development ecosystem is going to evolve. There are a lot of threads throughout all three organizations that are happening simultaneously. Emurgo, they're really thinking deeply about DeFi and they've invited us to collaborate with them on things like stablecoins for example but we're also looking at oracles (oracle pools), DEX and these other things and because there are already people in market who have made mistakes, learned lessons, it gives us the benefit of hindsight. It means we can be much faster to market and we can build much more competitive things in market and the Cardano community gets first access to these next generation DeFi applications without a lot of the problems of the prior generations and that's super beneficial to us.
You know, the other side of it, is that Voltaire is going to have a systemic influence not just on community funding but also the overall evolution and direction of the platform. The longer it exists the more pervasive it will become. Probably first applied towards the Cardano foundation roadmap but later on it will definitely have a lot of influence and say over every element aspect of the system including the launch dApps and these other things. Basically, long term, the types of problems that Cardano solves so that's incredibly appealing to me and very exciting to me because it's like I have this giant community brain with the best and brightest of all of you working with us to get us where we need to go.
You know, another thing that was super encouraging, it's a small thing, but it shows us that we're definitely in the right direction was that we recently got a demo from Pramod (Viswanath) and his team out of university of Illinois on a protocol they create called PrisM which is a super fast proof-of-work protocol and they wrote this beautiful paper and they wrote code along with it that showed that PrisM is a ten thousand times faster than Nakamoto consensus. If you take the bitcoin proof-of-work protocol, you strip it out, you put PrisM in, you can run the entire bitcoin system 10000 times faster. They have these beautiful benchmarks to show that. Even in bad network conditions. (I'm) promoting this team, they're, they're real researchers, and they're real engineers, they use a lot of cool HPC concepts like springboarding and other things like that to accommodate that. Then I asked him in the presentation, I said well, how much faster if you replay the Ethereum chain? He says, well, that it takes a big performance hit, could be only maybe a hundred times because that model is not as easy to optimize and shard with standard computer science concepts. In fact in some cases there are limitations there that really can't be overcome. It turns out that we're more on that UTXO side than we are on the account side. As a coincidence or intent of the design of extended UTXO we're gonna have a lot easier time getting much higher performance where and when it's necessary.
I also approved this week a scaling up of the Basho project. In particular, to build a hydra prototype team. The science has gotten to a point where we can make a really competitive push in that particular direction. What does that mean? It means that in just a few short months we can de-risk technological approaches that long-term will give us a lot of fruit where and when the community decides that they need infrastructure like hydra. Now, here's the beautiful thing about hydra. If you watch my whiteboard back in September of 2017 when Cardano first hit market with Byron I talked about this concept of looking at scalability with a very simple test which is as you get more people in the system it stays at the same performance or it gets faster. We all experience systems that do this, for example, bittorrent, more people downloading something you tend to be able to get it faster and we all experience the converse which is, the system gets slower when you get more people. What does this mean? It means that hydra is an actual approach towards true scalability in the system and it's a lot easier to do than sharding even though we have a beautiful approach to get the sharding on the ledger side if we truly desire to go down that way. There's beautiful ideas that we are definitely in deep discussions about. That's a very complex thing. There was recently a paper ("Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma") out of Stanford that showed that the Gasper protocol as proposed for ETH2.0 does have some security concerns and it's going to be the burden on the shoulders of the Ethereum 2.0 developers and Vitalik to address those concerns from those Stanford professors. Whenever you have these very complex protocols they have so many different ways they can break and things can go wrong so it's much more appealing when you don't have to embrace complexity to achieve the same. The elegance of hydra is that stake pool operators are very natural parties to put hydra channels on and every time we add one we get much more performance out of that and the system as it gets more valuable. The k factor increases which means you get more stake pull operators, which means you get more hydra channels, so with growth we get appreciation, with appreciation we get more decentralization, with more decentralization we get more performance. In essence, this spiritually speaking, is really what we meant when we said scalability. That the system will always grow to meet its particular needs and we have a very elegant way of moving in that direction that doesn't require us to embrace very sophisticated techniques. It's not to say that these techniques don't have a place and purpose but it says that the urgency of implementing these is gone and we then have the luxury to pick the best science when it's ready instead of rushing it to market to resolve a crisis of high fees. We'll never have that crisis so there's a beauty to Cardano that is missing, I in my view, from many cryptocurrencies and blockchains in the marketplace and we're now seeing that beauty shine through. Not only through our community who are so passionate and amazing but in the science and the engineering itself and how easy it is for us to navigate the concepts. How easy it is for us to add more things, to take some things away, to clean some things up here and there and our ability to move through.
I never imagined when in 2015 I signed up to go in on this crazy ride and try to build a world financial operating system we would have made as much progress as we made today. We've written more than 75 research papers as an organization many of which are directly applicable to Cardano. We've got great partners who work with Nasa and Boeing and Pfizer, massive companies, that have 10 years of history and millions of users to come in and help us grow better. We've worked with incredible organizations, major universities like university of Wyoming, university of Edinburgh, Tokyo, tech professors all across the world. We've worked with incredible engineering firms like VacuumLabs and AtixLabs and Twig and Well-Typed, runtime verification, QuviQ and dozens of others along the years and despite the fact that at times there's been delays and friction throughout this entire journey we've mostly been aligned and we keep learning and growing. It gives me so much hope that our best days are ahead of us and an almost fanatical belief that success is inevitable in a certain respect. You see because we always find a way to be here tomorrow and we always find a way to make tomorrow a better day than today and as long as that's the trend you're monotonically increasing towards a better tomorrow, you're always going to have that outcome, you're always going to be in a position where Cardano shines bright. Towards the end of the month we'll have a lot more to say about the development side and that'll be a beginning just like Voltaire is the beginning and then suddenly you now notice the beautiful parallelism of the roadmap. Shelley continues to evolve, partial delegation is coming, in fact, I signed the contract with vacuumlabs to bring that to Ledger (and Trezor). The Daedalus team is hard at work to make that feature apparent for everyone as is the Yoroi team.
You see that, with now Voltaire, and soon was Goguen, and these are not endpoints, rather they're just beginnings and they're never over. We can always make staking better, more diverse, more merit-based and entertain different control models, have better delegation mechanics, have better user experience. The same for smart contracts, that's an endless river and along the way what we've discovered is it's easy for us to work with great minds and great people. For example with testing of smart contracts I would love to diversify that conversation above and beyond what we can come up with and bring in some firms who have done this for a long time to basically take that part with us shoulder to shoulder and build beautiful frameworks to assist us. For example, runtime verification is doing this with, the EVM with a beautiful project called Firefly to replace Truffle. I believe that we can achieve similar ends with Plutus smart contracts.
When you ask yourself what makes a system competitive in the cryptocurrency space? In my view there are four dimensions and you have to have a good story for all four of those dimensions. You need security and correctness. A lot of people don't prioritize that but when they get that wrong it hurts retail people, it hurts everyday people, billions of dollars have been lost due to the incompetence and ineptitude of junior developers making very bad mistakes and oftentimes those developers faced no consequences. The people who lost money were innocent people who believed in cryptocurrencies and wanted to be part of the movement but didn't protect themselves adequately. That's a really sad thing and it's unethical to continue pushing a model that that is the standard or the likely outcome rather than a rare edge case. You have to as a platform, a third generation platformn invest heavily in giving the developers proper tools to ensure security and correctness. We've seen a whole industry there's been great innovations out of Quantstamp and ConsenSys and dozens of other firms in the space including runtime verification who have really made major leaps in the last few years of trying to improve that story. What's unique to Cardano is that we based our foundations on languages that were designed right the first time and there's over 35 years of history for the approach that we're following in the Haskell side that allows us to build high assurance systems and our developers in the ecosystem to build high assurance systems. We didn't reinvent the wheel, we found the best wheel and we're giving it to you.
I think we're going to be dominant in that respect as we enter 2021. Second, you look at things like ease of maintenance, ease of deployment, the life cycle of the software upgrades to the software and as we've demonstrated with things like the hard fork combinator and the fact that Voltaire is not just a governance layer for ada and Cardano but will eventually be reusable for any dApp deployed on our system. You have very natural tooling that's going to allow people to upgrade their smart contracts, their dApps and enable governance for their users at an incredibly low cost and not have to reinvent the governance wheel each and every application. This is another unique property to our system and it can be reused for the dApps that you deploy on your system as I've mentioned before. Performance is a significant concern and this was often corrupted by marketers especially ICO marketers who really wanted to differentiate (and) say: "our protocol tested on a single server in someone's basement is 500000 transactions per second" and somehow that translates to real life performance and that's antithetical to anyone who's ever to study distributed systems and understands the reality of these systems and where they go and what they do and in terms of performance. I think we have the most logical approach. You know, we have 10 years of history with bitcoin, it's a massive system, we've learned a huge amount and there's a lot of papers written about, a lot of practical projects and bitcoin is about to step into the world of smart contracts. We congratulate them on getting Schnorr sigs in and the success of Taproot. That means entering 2021, 2022, we are going to start seeing legitimate dApps DeFi projects, real applications, instead of choosing Ethereum or Algorand, EOS, Cardano, choosing bitcoin and they're adding a lot to that conversation. I think that ultimately that model has a lot of promise which is why we built a better one. There are still significant limitations with what bitcoin can accomplish from settlement time to the verbosity of contracts that can be written.
The extended UTXO model was designed to be the fastest accounting and most charitable accounting model ever, on and off chain, and hydra was designed to allow you to flex between those two systems seamlessly. When you look at the foundations of where we're at and how we can extend this from domain specific languages, for domain experts, such as Marlowe to financial experts, and the DSLs that will come later, for others, like lawyers and supply chain experts in medical databases and so forth and how easy it is to write and deploy these. Plutus being beautiful glue code for both on and off chain communications. I think we have an incredibly competitive offering for performance and when hydra comes, simply put, there'll be no one faster. If we need to shard, we're going to do that and definitely better than anybody else because we know where our security model sits and there won't be surprise Stanford papers to blindside us that require immediate addressing.
In terms of operating costs, this is the last component, in my view, and that's basically how much does it cost you the developer to run your application? There are really two dimensions, one is predictability and the other is amount. It's not just good enough to say: it's a penny per transaction today. You need to know that after you spend millions of dollars and months or years of effort building something and deploying something that you're not going to wake up tomorrow and now it's five dollars to do what used to cost a penny. You need that cost to be as low as possible and as predictable as possible and again the way that we architectured our system and as we turn things on towards the end of this year and as we enter into the next year we believe we have a great approach to achieve low operating cost. One person asks why Cardano? Well because we have great security and correctness in the development experience and tools with 35 years of legacy that were built right the first time and don't put the burdens of mistakes on your customers. They ask why Cardano and we say: well the chain itself is going to give you great solutions with identity value transformation and governance itself and as a consequence when you talk about upgrading your applications having a relationship with your customers of your applications and you talk about the ease of maintenance of those applications. There's going to be a good story there and we have beautiful frameworks like Voltaire that allow that story to evolve and we keep adding partners and who have decades of experience to get us along. We won't stop until it's much better. They asked why Cardano? We said because at the moment we're 10 times faster today than Ethereum today and that's all we really need for this year and next year to be honest and in the future we can be as fast as we need to be because we're truly scalable. As the system gets more decentralized the system improves performance and where and when we need to shard we can do that. We'll have the luxury of time to do it right, the Cardano way, and when people ask why Cardano? Because the reality is, it's very cheap to do things on our platform and the way we're building things. That's going to continue being the case and we have the governance mechanisms to allow the community to readjust fees and parameters so that it can continue being affordable for users. Everything in the system will eventually be customizable and parameterizable: from block size, to transaction fees and the community will be in a good position to dynamically allocate these things where and when needed so that we can enjoy as an ecosystem predictability in our cost.
In the coming weeks and months, especially in my company, we're going to invest a lot of time and effort into comparison marketing and product marketing. When I see people say, oh well, you've launched proof of stake, a lot of other people have done. I don't think those people fully appreciate the magnitude of what we actually accomplished as an ecosystem and the quality of the protocols that are in distribution. That's not their fault, it's our fault, because we didn't take the time in simplistic terms, not scientific papers and deep code and formal specifications, but rather everyday language, to really show why we're different. I admit that that's a product failing and that needs to be corrected so we hired a great marketing director, named Liza (Horowitz?) and she is going to work full time with me and others in the ecosystem, a great team of people, every single day to get out there and explain what we have done is novel, unique, competitive and special to our industry. Everything from Ouroboros and contrast to major other protocols from the EOSes and Algorands and the Tezos of the world. Why we're different, trade-offs we chose over them, to our network stack, to the extended UTXO model, to Plutus, to Marlowe and we're going to keep hammering away at that until we get it right and everybody acknowledges and sees what has been accomplished.
I've spent five years of my life, good years of my life, and missed a lot to get this project where it needs to go. All of our employees have invested huge sums of their personal lives, their time, their brand, their careers, in trying to make this the really most magical and special cryptocurrency and blockchain infrastructure around. No one ever signed up in this company or the other companies working on Cardano to work on a mediocre protocol. That's just another blockchain, they signed up to change the world, they signed up to build a system that legitimately can look at you in the face and say: one day we have the potential to have a billion users! That's what they signed up for and they showed up to play. They built technology that evolves in that direction with some certainty and great foundations and we have an obligation to market in a way that can show the world why, succinctly, with clarity. Understandably, this has been a failing in the past but you know what? You can always be better tomorrow that monotonically increasing make it better and that's what we're going to do. We recognized it and we're going to invest in it and with Voltaire if we can't do it. You the community can do it and we'll work with you. If you can do a better job and the funding will be there to get that done. In addition to this, we think about 2021 and we ask where does the future take us? I've thought a lot about this you know I've thought a lot about how do we get the next five years as we close out 2020 and here's the reality: we're not going to leave as a company until we have smart contracts and multi-asset and Voltaire has evolved to a point where the community can comfortably make decisions about the future of the protocol and that the staking experience has solidified and it's stable.
I don't care if this costs me millions or tens of millions of dollars out of my own pocket to make happen. I'm going to do that because that's my commitment to you, the community and every product update will keep pushing our way there. We'll continue to get more transparent, we'll continue to get more aggressive and hire more and parallelize more. Aware when we can, to deliver that experience so that Cardano gets where it needs to go. Then when we ask about where do we go next? The reality is that the science as an industry, the engineering as an industry has given a menu of incredibly unique attractive and sexy things that we can pursue. What we're going to do is work with the community and the very same tools that are turning on today, the Voltaire tools, the cardano.ideascale.com tools and we're going to propose a consortium and we're going to bring the best and brightest together and give a vision of where we can take the system in another five years. With the benefit of hindsight, massively improved processes, better estimation capabilities and the fact that we're not starting with two people at IOG. We're starting with 250 people and the best scientific division in our industry and the legacy of almost, nearly by the end of this year, 100 scientific papers. That's us, you know what, there's dozens of companies throughout the history who have worked on Cardano. It's about time to scale them up too and get client diversity. So come next year when the protocol has evolved to the point where it's ready for it, we'll have that conversation with you the community and that's going to be a beautiful conversation. At the conclusion of it, there's going to be certainty of how we're going to evolve over the next five years to get ourselves beyond the cryptocurrency space. I'm very tired of these conversations we have about: are you going to go to (coindesk's) consensus or not? Or who's going to be the big winner? What about Libra or what about this particular regulation and this crypto unicorn and this thing?
You know I've been in the space a long time and I've noticed that people keep saying the same things year after year in the same venues. Yes, the crowd sizes get larger and the amount of value at risk gets larger but I haven't seen a lot of progress in the places where I feel it is absolutely necessary for this technology to be permanent in the developing world. We need to see economic identity. People often ask what is the mission for Cardano? For us IOG, you look at economic identity and you take a look at a roadmap. For it, you scale up and down, and each and every step along the way, from open data, to self-sovereign identity, to financial inclusion. You can keep going down: to decentralized lending, decentralized insurance, decentralized banking. Each and every step along the way to economic identity. When you admit a blockchain tells you that, there's a collection of applications and infrastructure that you need to build.
My life's work is to get to a point where we have the technology to do that. The infrastructure to do that, with principles, and so we'll keep evolving Cardano and we'll keep evolving the space as a whole and the science as a whole until I can wake up and say: each box and that road to economic identity, for all people not just one group, we have a solution for that. I'm going to put those applications on Cardano and success for me is not about us being king of the crypto hill and having a higher market cap than bitcoin or being entrepreneur of the year coindesk's most influential person. It's meaningless noise, success for me is reflecting back at the things that we have accomplished together and recognizing that millions if not billions now live in a system where they all matter, they all have a voice, they all have an equal footing. The Jeff Bezos of the world have the very same experience as the person born in Rwanda and we're not done until that's the case. It's a long road, it's a hard road, but you know what? We're making progress, we have great people in Africa, we have great people in eastern Europe, we have great people in southeast Asia and great partners all along the way. Great people, Latin America, great people in south America, great people here in the United States.
When we talk about economic identity there are millions, if not tens of millions of Americans who don't have it. Same for Canadians, hundreds of thousands, who don't have it. Developed western cultures, it's the greatest blind spot of policy and as we enter into a depression as a result of coronavirus, add millions if not tens of millions more onto that list. Generations are being disenfranchised by this legacy system and we as an ecosystem, we as an entire community are offering a different way forward. Not hyper centralizationn not social credit but a way forward where you own your own money, your own identity, your own data. You're not a victim of surveillance capitalism, you're not a victim of civil asset forfeiture. When you say the wrong things, you get shut out of society. Each and every human being matters and I'm optimistic to believe that when you remind people that they matter they're gonna rise to the occasion. That is the point of my company. In the things that we do each and every day, that's our mission to give the platforms to the world so that those who don't have economic identity can get it and they can keep it and no one can take it from them and they can enjoy an ever increasing growth of standard of living wealth and prosperity.
However you want to measure that this is my goal post, I couldn't care less about the cryptocurrency space. It was a great place to start but the space needs to be reminded why it exists. Bitcoin was given a mandate on the back of the 2008 financial crisis to do something different. It was not given a mandate to go be a new settlement layer for central banks or a new way for the old guard to make more money and banks get bigger and for those who are in control to preserve their power. The whole point of doing something so crazy as to buy a coin that doesn't even exist in real life, that's just a bunch of numbers in the cloud, the whole point of that was so that we as a society could do something different than the way that we'd been doing things before. So, each and every member of the cryptocurrency space needs to remind everyone else from time to time why we're here and where did we come from and where are we going to go.
The beauty of Cardano is we have already achieved for the most part a decentralized brain and that momentum is pushing harder than ever. More and more scientists are waking up, more and more institutions are waking up, getting us there. The code we have, the right approach and I think we have a great competitive offering for 2021 as we go and battle the titans and that's going to be a lot of fun but we know who we are and where we're going and we're in the right places. It's so incredibly encouraging to see the stake pool operators not just be from California or Texas or New York or Canada. To see a lot of stake pool operators from the place that need the most, help everybody does matter and it means a lot to me for the people who are there but it means a lot to everybody to say that we have created an equal platform. It makes the participation of all of us so much more meaningful. We're not just talking to each other, we're talking to the world and by working together on this platform we're lifting the world up and giving people hope. That's the point, there's a lot more to do, we didn't get everything done. You never do you aspire, you work hard, you set a moon, shot and sometimes you can just get to orbit with the first go but you know what? When you build the next rocket you can go to Mars.
Thank you all for being with me, thank you all for being part of this. Today was a damn good day with the announcement of Voltaire. Go to cardano.ideascale.com. You can participate in that, so end of September is going to be a good day too. There's a lot of good days to come, in between a lot of hard days, doing tasks sometimes entirely forgettable but always necessary to keep the revolution going and the movement going. I cannot wait for 2021, our best days are ahead of us, because of you. You all take care now .
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BFa9zL_Dl_w
Other things mentioned:
https://cardano.ideascale.com/
https://www.atixlabs.com/blockchain
https://www.well-typed.com/
https://www.vacuumlabs.com/
https://medium.com/interdax/what-is-taproot-and-how-will-it-benefit-bitcoin-5c8944eed8da
https://medium.com/interdax/how-will-schnorr-signatures-benefit-bitcoin-b4482cf85d40
https://quantstamp.com/
https://bloxian.com/bloxian-platforms/ (TWIG)
https://runtimeverification.com/firefly/
https://www.trufflesuite.com/
https://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/prism-deconstructing-the-blockchain-to-approach-physical-limits (PrisM and not our Prism https://atalaprism.io/)
Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma (aka Gasper and ETH2.0 fucker) https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.04987
http://www.quviq.com/products/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schnorr_signature
submitted by stake_pool to cardano [link] [comments]


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